Birds | Similar to other grain legumes, cowpea contains trypsin inhibitors which limit protein utilization. Texas A&M AgriLife Research Overton, Texas . Cowpeas like heat, but a frost will kill them. In the Southern States, the lesser cornstalk borer and possibly other borers may be a problem, especially where cowpeas border fields of maturing corn or sorghum. Home | A modest but versatile crop, cowpeas may provide an answer to demands on grower resources—and international appetites. Days to maturity are from sowing. 1Departments of Horticultural Science, Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products, Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108. Prospective growers need to investigate potential markets prior to planting. The Institute has developed high yielding, short season, multiple disease-resistant varieties that are ready for harvest in 60 days. Band fertilizer 3 to 4 in. Or, cook them We supply seeds to a wide range of customers and organizations. Chemical: The term " cowpea" is not found on most herbicide labels. Cowpea may be used green or as dry fodder. Dry mature seeds are also suitable for boiling and canning. Green cowpea seeds are boiled as a fresh vegetable, or may be canned or frozen. Brown eye—Pods vary in color from green to lavender and have a wide range of lengths. If growing on a vine, they will need some support like a pole or fence during their growth. OPEN POLLINATED HEIRLOOM. Digestibility and yield of certain cultivars have been shown to be comparable to alfalfa. Cowpea pods are packed, 25 pounds net, in bushel hampers or mesh bags (not burlap sacks). If irrigation is used, more vegetative growth and some delay in maturity may result. Cowpeas, first brought to the southeastern U.S. by African slaves, were sowed in the South Orchard at Monticello between 1806 and 1810. The beans areas of the country. Singh and K.O. seeds directly into the garden. Cowpeas are basically annual crops grown for their leaves and seed. A farmer can expect a high yield of 12 to 15 quintal per hectare. This will help avoid fungus diseases. The plant dies within a few days after the rust symptoms appear. a four or five year rotation with other crops. Extra early varieties (60 days maturity) developed in this programme are IT 82E-32, -9, -56, -5, -60 and bush type varieties are IT 81D-1228-13, -14 and -15. Harvest date for green snap pods is normally specified by the processor. Recently, higher plant populations achieved by using narrow rows 12 to 20 in. Tolerance: Low nitrogen, drought: Days to maturity: 100 days: Seed Colour: Pink: Seed rate: 12kg/ha: Spacing: 75 x 15 cm: Target regions: I, II, Yield potential: 1,500-2,000kg/ha 3. 1From Bressani R. Chap. Tswana Cowpeas is well adapted to the hot and dry climate and sandy soil types of Botswana. Root-knot nematodes cause the root to appear knotted and galled. Commonly, the terminal leaflet is longer and larger than the lateral leaflets. Field peas or cowpeas – California Blackeye (65 days); Brown Sugar Crowder (90 days) Soil for Growing Peas. Cowpea in Grain Legumes as Alternative Crops. Delayed maturity (115 days) were recorded for Nakare at 150 Gy and Shindimba at 100 and 200 Gy (Table 5). Cream—Seeds of these types are generally cream colored and have no noticeable "eye" (the hilum is inconspicuous). Jimmy Carter Plant Materials Center data, Managing Cover Crops Profitably Ace Nematode resistance, semi-bushy growth, high biomass yield. In this white-mat of the fungus, numerous smooth, round, light-tan to dark-brown mustard seed-like bodies called sclerotia are formed. Dry cowpea production are likely to incur costs similar to the costs of dry edible bean production. Nutritive value of Cowpea. Two or three pods per peduncle are common and often four or more pods are carried on a single peduncle. Vine: Semi-bush, 2 feet high. If you have NOTE: All of the descriptions on this website, including the days to maturity, are based on data from varietal trials conducted in specific locations. Table 1. White acre—The peas are kidney shaped with a blunt end. Great for stopping soil erosion and weed suppression. Cowpea, like all legumes, forms a symbiotic relationship with a specific soil bacterium (Rhizobium spp.). Cowpea is a warm-season, annual, herbaceous legume. spp. prior to planting. or during, the ripening of the crop. deep, 2 in. They Small seeded variety of forage cowpea for forage and cover cropping systems. Mild damp weather favors development of aphid populations. Days To Maturity The average number of days from when the plant is actively growing in the garden to the expected time of harvest. and nip tender leaves. At the M 5 Bira measured early maturity (62 days) with the highest dose of 600 Gy. S.R. Optimum plant spacing depends on vine type. Early maturity constitutes an important adaptation in agroecological zones with short growing seasons particularly in the arid and semiarid tropics where such cowpea genotypes which mature between 55 and 60 days are ideal for cultivation [16 1. These spots result from adults puncturing the pod to feed on or to lay eggs. Mature green cowpeas are normally harvested mechanically by some type of mobile viner. Grow Cowpeas Use fresh/dried. Fusarium wilt usually causes the lower leaves on one side of the plant to turn yellow. Cowpea seeds come in bush, vine, tall and short varieties. Plant them directly in the ground well after any chance of frost, when soil temperatures are above 60 degrees. Seed may also be speckled. Its seed isdark reddish brown in colour. Rows were spaced 30 in. The blackeyed cowpea type is grown primarily in California and is marketed as California blackeyed peas. Seeds develop a kidney shape if not restricted within the pod. They are no longer commonly grown. D.W. Davis1, E.A. Green stink bugs cause damage by puncturing the pods and feeding on developing peas. Days to Maturity: Ranges from 80 to 90 days depending on variety. A regular sickle-bar mower works for the more upright-growing cultivars (120, 422). In the Minnesota-Wisconsin area, optimum seeding dates usually correspond to those for fieldbean (May 15-30). Chapter 28 in Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization. Enter the cowpea. Texas A&M AgriLife Research Overton, Texas . The opti-mum sowing times are December to January. Root-knot nematodes can also be harmful to the cowpea because root injuries make the plants much more susceptible to attack by Fusarium wilt. 70 days — Also called 'Texas Big Boy', 'Big Boy' has bushes that are compact, stand erect, and have lavender flowers. Cowpea primarily is self pollinating. Other Names: cowpeas; Days to Maturity: 60-90 days; Hardiness Zone: 3-12; Planting Depth: 1-2" Plant Spacing: 4-6" Row Spacing: 18-24" Growth Habit: Can be bush or upright with pole; Soil Preference: Sandy; Temp Preference: Warmer; Light Preference: Full sun is required. Bubebe Its seed isdark reddish brown in colour. Days to Germination: 7-10 Days Days to Maturity: 80 Days Growth Type: Bush Planting Depth: 1" Seed Spacing: Sow California Blackeye Cowpea seeds roughly 3" apart in rows, keeping each row approximately 3' apart. Cowpeas grow well on poor land and add lots of organic matter to the soil. This plant variety has an early maturity and will be ready to harvest by 80 to 100 days. over three or four consecutive days. Although cowpea Rhizobium is normally widespread, seed inoculation with Rhizobium specific to cowpea would be beneficial in areas where it is not present. Originating in subtropical Asia, black eyed peas need long warm summers, 60 to 100 frost free days, to grow to maturity. Pick as needed for salads. Once planted, the seeds should reach maturity within ninety to one hundred days provided that rainfall exceeds at least 25 in. Seed matures in 90 to 140 days. Even in early flowering varieties, the flowering period can be extended by warm and … applying cowpea-labeled fungicides in the furrow. Waters, Luther. Harvested green cowpeas will "heat" resulting in spoilage unless kept cool. With their highly digestible, protein packed leaves they are commonly used as a warm season forage for deer and livestock. Sow 8 weeks after seeding. 1/4oz: 1/2oz: 1lb: 5lb (per lb) 10lb (per lb) 25lb (per lb) 50lb (per lb) 100lb (per lb) 2.55: 4.10: 6.75: 5.60: 4.95: 4.15: 3.25: 2.95: 60-70 days. Ranges from 80 to 90 days depending on variety. The number of days taken from 50% flowering to maturity ranged from 26 days to 32 days. Brick red tissue can be observed in the stem when it is split lengthwise. Pick when very young, as the pods get tough and stringy early. This versatile legume is suited for grain-, hay-, as well as silage production and combines well with Maize or Sorghum. Flowers are borne in multiple racemes on 8 to 20 in. If harvesting "green" pick, of high heat and humidity. 1987. There is a wide range in leaf size and shape. View at: Google Scholar See in References , 17 1. One or two rotary hoeings followed by timely cultivation should be done when no herbicides are used. For dried shell beans, pick after the pods have dried. Cowpeas and lablab can be sown when danger of frost is over, and when soil temperatures reach a steady 18°C at sowing depth at 9 am Eastern Standard Summer Time (E.S.S.T.) Pods are quite stiff. The time of flowering of photosensitive varieties is dependent on time and location of sowing and may be more than 100 days. days to flowering, and Ribeiro et al. 1Data courtesy of R. O. Robinson, University of Minnesota Experiment Station. Purple Hull White Pinkeye Cowpeas. Cowpeas come in bush, vine, tall and short varieties. Cowpeas grow in a slender pod which looks like a green bean. Seed shape is kidney; class is non-crowder with a wrinkled and smooth seed coat. Infested foliage turns yellow and dies. The occurrence of southern blight is not restricted to the South. Iron & Clay cowpeas are a summer annual legume. NOTE: All of the descriptions on this website, including the days to maturity, are based on data from varietal trials conducted in specific locations. than Iron and Clay at 45 – 50 days. In addition to not needing much water, cowpea plants can … Highly determinate types may be planted 2 to 3 in. where the white colored hilum is surrounded by another color. Singh asserts. a fast start as soon as they germinate. of 65 degrees or higher. Planting Information . Iron Clay Cowpeas are fairly resilient once planted, and are able to germinate in a wide array of soils, but they still require the PH to be between 5 and 7.5. N/A in California. It tolerates heat and dry conditions, but is intolerant of frost. 90 -100 days maturity. If there are Pods can be harvested when they’re young, as well as when they’ve dried. Properly inoculated in nitrogen deficient soils, cowpeas can produce more than 300 lb. Drought resistance is one reason that the Cowpea is such an important crop in many underdeveloped parts of the world. I have probably planted more acres in cowpeas during summer than any other species. Dry cowpeas may be windrowed to facilitate drying or straight combined using a small grain or soybean combine. From 1988, the main breeding objectives have been improved drought and heat tolerance and multiple pest and disease resistance. Drilled Seed Depth (inches) 1 - 2 Managing Cover Crops Profitably Drilled Seeding Rate (lbs/acre) 30 - 90 Use . Follow the spacing directions on the packet. Soils should be cultivated deeply enough to insure that no barrier to penetration of the soil by the taproot (such as a hardpan) exists. Early-sown crops tend to have elon-gated internodes, are less erect, more vegetative and have a lower yield than those sown at the optimum time. Deer will forage for the young beans. 90-100 days maturity. During warm, moist conditions, the coarse, white mycelium of the fungus makes characteristic fan-shaped patterns of growth on the stem at the soil line. Depending on temperature, fresh-market (green-mature) peas are ready for harvest 16 to 17 days after bloom (60 to 90 days after planting). | Drought resistance is one reason that the Cowpea is such an important crop in many underdeveloped parts of the world. yellow or purple. It is chiefly used as a grain crop, for animal fodder, or as a vegetable. Herbs | Cowpea can be used at all stages of growth as a vegetable crop. Days to Days to flowering maturity Fodder yield Grain yield 100-seed weight Fodder Grain Genotype DS and NS DS NS DS NS DS NS DS NS YR† YR STI GMP IT98K-698-2 48 72 76 2781 4653 920 2809 18.36 19.28 40 67 0.28 1607 IT99K-124-5 48 71 75 3188 5223 1574 3102 19.05 19.81 39 49 0.52 2209 KVX-396 49 72 77 2921 5071 777 2975 15.70 16.45 42 71 0.29 1642 KVX-403 49 71 75 3082 5063 1720 3207 … The growth habit is climbing, spreading or erect and they belong to the bean family (Leguminosae) (Papilionaceae).Cowpeas are native to Africa where they were domesticated over 4000 years ago. deep and 2 to 3 in. Days to Maturity: Cowpeas take 80 days or more to become ready for harvest. Fixation occurs in root nodules of the plant and the bacteria utilize sugars produced by the plant. University of Georgia. **Cowpeas, Southern Peas, are the most productive and heat tolerant legumes around. Climate for Growing Cowpeas Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences circular 478. CBC2 isearly maturing (takes about 85 days to mature), with a 61% yield advantage over CBC1.Under optimal conditions, CBC2 can yield up to 3 … 1995. Cooperative Extension Service circular 485. Cowpeas come in bush, vine, tall and short varieties. Full sun means 6 hours of direct sun per day; partial sun means 2-4 hours of direct sun per day; shade means little or no direct sun. Plowdown often comes 60 to 90 days after planting in California (275). They will eat the young plants, The trifoliolate leaves develop alternately. inoculant There are a wide range of seeding rates reported. These garden vegetables are very tolerant of and do well in dry, sandy soil and hot temperatures. Cowpeas Seeds were first domesticated in Africa, where sixty six percent of the world’s production still occurs. Extension Service of Mississippi State University Publication 1535. Application rates should insure that the crop is not overwatered, especially in more northern latitudes, as this will suppress growth by lowering soil temperatures. Several viruses can attack cowpea. The presence of these long peduncles is a distinguishing feature of cowpea and this characteristic also facilitates harvest. Fungicides are recommended in areas J. Abadassi, “Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) In more northerly areas, some damage may be experienced from the European corn borer. When resistant varieties are not used, it is important that root-knot nematode control practices be followed since nematodes increase plant susceptibility to Fusarium wilt. apart. You can find our seeds at leading agrodealers across Zambia. Yields a white to tan colour grain. Most domestic cowpea production is mechanically harvested, however, hand harvested cowpeas suffer less damage and the harvest season may continue over a 1 to 3 week period. Cowpeas nodulate profusely, producing an average of about 130 lb. Farmers planning on producing cowpeas should check with their State Agricultural Extension Service for advice on chemical weed control. Some are bush, some are vining, and some are in-between. Peas are cream colored with light brown eyes. long, cylindrical and generally somewhat curved. Harvesting: Cowpea pods can get up to 6 to 10 inches in length and look similar to green beans. Grading standards for mature-green cowpeas require that pods of similar varieties should be fairly well formed and filled, neither overmature nor excessively young. Texas Agricultural Extension Service L-1862. varieties. For dry peas, add 2-3 weeks. The amount of seed to sow per acre depends on seed weight, germination percentage, and plant spacing. United States production of dry cowpea has declined from 3/4 million acres to a few thousand over the same period. Dry cowpea seed is cleaned, graded, fumigated and packed in small plastic bags for sale to consumers. The immature seeds, when cooked, are a medium to dark brown color, very tender, and have a delicate flavor. Cowpeas cooled below 45�F may show chilling injury. Rather, the crop is referred to as blackeyed peas, southern peas, pinkeyed peas or crowder peas. bean inside. Cowpea curculio is a small weevil that causes blister-like spots on the surface of the pod. Cowpea is more drought resistant than the common bean. Leaves are smooth, dull to shiny, and rarely pubescent. Therefore, cowpea seed is valued as a nutritional supplement to cereals and an extender of animal proteins. crop. Sooty mold, a fungus, is dark in color, which reduces the amount of sunlight that reaches the leaf. This type of emergence makes cowpea more susceptible to seedling injury, since the plant does not regenerate buds below the cotyledonary node. NOTE: All of the descriptions on this website, including the days to maturity, are based on data from varietal trials conducted in specific locations. University of Florida. Days to Germination: 8 - 12 Days Days to Maturity: 58 Days Planting Depth: 1.5" Seed Spacing: Plant Alaska Pea seeds roughly 2" apart in rows. Days to Maturity: Cowpeas take 80 days or more to become ready for harvest. Cowpea seed is a nutritious component in the human diet, as well as a nutritious livestock feed. This often occurs just before, Germ in about 8 days. They prefer rich, well draining soil. Many factors, including geographic location, daytime and nighttime temperatures, the availability of plant nutrients, as well as many unknown environmental factors, interact to determine a variety's performance. Cowpeas are not a hardy plant. Cowpeas have been grouped into the following market classes based on seed type and color: Black eye and purple eye—The immature pods shell easily because the hull (pod wall) is pliable and the seeds come out of the pod clean and free. Mechanical harvest requires the use of a snap bean or green pea harvester. Many are also referred to as "eyed" (blackeye, pinkeye purple hull, etc.) Average yield data for cowpea grown in Texas, 1978 and 1979 respectively, showed significant variability, ranging from 625 and 1400 lb/acre for green cowpeas and 570 and 1000 lb/acre for dry seed. 2These cultivars did not reach pod and seed maturity before Frost. Rhizobium makes atmospheric nitrogen available to the plant by a process called nitrogen fixation. Young, tender leaves are edible. CBC2 isearly maturing (takes about 85 days to mature), with a 61% yield advantage over CBC1.Under optimal conditions, CBC2 can yield up to … Cowpea is more drought resistant than common bean. The shelled peas are attractive, mild flavored and suitable for processing. Nutrient content of mature cowpea seed (average of eight varieties). Wordwide cowpea production has increased dramatically in the last 25 years. They became a staple food in the Southeastern United States where they are eaten as green shelled peas or left to dry on the vine for later use. 158–165, 2015. In most districts except the tablelands, these legumes can be sown for forage from mid-October to early January. Days to harvest, seed type, seed yield-, and canopy size of cowpea cultivars on an irrigated sandy loam, Becker, Minn., 1993. (2014) found around three genes for the days to grain maturity trait. The first visible symptom of southern blight is a progressive, yellowing and wilting of the foliage beginning on the lower leaves. Seeds are moderately small and bicolored. A brownish vascular discoloration inside die stem may extend several inches above the soil line. Days to Maturity 65 (Spring/Summer), 65 (Fall/Winter) Growing Habit Vine Hardiness Very Tender Cowpea is a warm-season crop well adapted to many areas of the humid tropics and temperate zones. ): John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Southern Pea (Commercial Vegetable Production) 1986. Nutrient content of cowpea seed is summarized in Table 1. Days to maturity: 110 days; Yield potential: 2.5 t/ha; WE’D LOVE TO HEAR FROM YOU! Pest netting is effective for rabbits and deer. S.R. In addition to the cultural practices listed above, bury previous crop debris and the sclerotia, at least 6 in. Infestations of this pest develop on leaves and the fruiting stems. Trees | The plant thrives in warmer climates. Southern Peas, or "Cowpeas" as they are known to Northerners, are thought to be native to the continent of Africa and brought to the United States in early Colonial times during the slave trade. Cowpea seed ranges in size from the very small wild types up to nearly 14 in. The pod color at green shell maturity (65 to 70 days) and are green and at dry stage (85 to 90 days), they are a light, straw color. Cowpeas, also called Black Eyed Peas, are a favorite southern bean. For shorter summer areas, sow indoors at least 100 days prior to the first fall frost date; then plant out when the soil warms. Doll2, C.V. Hanson1, and D.H. Putnam1. One person can hand harvest 12 to 20 bushels of cowpea pods per day. An Upper Midwest market for fresh green or dry cowpeas has yet to be developed. of the circle on the "Pink Eye" variety? Ensure the required variety is planted Read More . Lesser cornstalk borer damage may be significantly reduced by clean cultivation at least two weeks prior to planting. In many areas of the world, the cowpea is the only available high quality legume hay for livestock feed. House Southern peas are also called cowpeas, field peas, crowder peas, and black-eyed peas. Cowpea leaves are picked 3-4 weeks after planting and the pods mature after 60-90 days of planting Read More Maturity of the cowpea is dependent on the size of the leaves and time after planting. The open display of flowers above the foliage and the presence of floral nectaries contribute to the attraction of insects. Instructions: Sow California Blackeye Cowpea seeds directly in the garden in full sun after the soil warms. Traditionally, cowpea in the United States has been seeded in rows spaced 30 to 36 in. U.S. No. Less vine than most of the other heirloom varieties of brown crowders. Many factors, including geographic location, daytime and nighttime temperatures, the availability of plant nutrients, as well as many unknown environmental factors, interact to determine a variety's performance. Cowpeas are a warm weather crops that grows best in warmer, more southerly planting certified seed of resistant varieties. Cowpea generally is strongly taprooted. apart with seeds spaced 2 to 4 in. A characteristic symptom of the mosaic virus disease is an intermixing of light and dark-brown areas. Post-harvest, provide shade and adequate ventilation is necessary on the way to the cooler. Many factors, including geographic location, daytime and nighttime temperatures, the availability of plant nutrients, as well as many unknown environmental factors, interact to determine a variety's performance. have been used in commercial plantings. Flowers | This plant variety has an early maturity and will be ready to harvest by 80 to 100 days. This variety is immune to all major diseases and good for grain and vegetable purpose. Plant 2 seeds every 3". apart. Apply a general purpose fertilizer once a month during the season. apart in rows 3-6 ft. apart, thinning to 4 in. Pods should be free from decay, worm holes, scars, discoloration, wilting, dirt, or other material. Infected plants usually are stunted and wilted as the organism develops in the food and water conducting tissues. Crowder—Seeds are closely crowded in the pods and tend to be globular in shape. There is much variability within the species. It also is used as a green manure crop, a nitrogen fixing crop, or for erosion control. If nematodes are present certain practices help reduce nematode populations. Symptoms vary and include rapid death of young succulent plants, discoloration of taproots, longitudinal cracks of the stems, stunting, wilting and poor yields. Cowpea is more drought resistant than the common bean. These data indicate that other grain legumes such as soybean and common dry edible bean may outyield cowpea (for dry seed yield) under many conditions in the Upper Midwest, therefore the price of cowpea should be greater to compete in these crops. Pods: 6-8 inches long. For dried use, make sure to harvest dried pods before rain or else seeds will mold. Instructions: Sow Alaska Pea seeds in full sun in spring and late summer. The Southern pea in Florida (A Small Farm Production Guide) 1982. 2. Plants infected during seedling stages may be barren and fail to produce. Fungal, Bacterial and Viral Diseases of Cowpeas in the USA- Patel, P.N. A starter N rate of around 27 lb/acre is sometimes required for early plant development on low-N soils. Punctures from feeding result in small malformed peas, and the results of egg laying are many legless grubs that destroy developing peas. Plant Estimated Maturity: 65 days. Try to keep the leaves dry as you water. Problems | Seed shape is a major characteristic correlated with seed development in the pod. disease arrives with summer heat and humidity. A soil test is the best way to determine soil nutrient levels. They can bear up to ten peas per eight inch pods that are set high on the plants and easy to pick. Maturity & harvesting. U.S. Commercial grade has no minimum length. For number of days to flowering, variations of 37.46% to 89.7% can be found for broad sense heritability, while narrow Plant 1 seed every 2". Many factors, including geographic location, daytime and nighttime temperatures, the availability of plant nutrients, as well as many unknown environmental factors, interact to determine a variety's performance. Nodules are attached to sides of roots, and galls are within the roots. Check the days to maturity of the crop you are planting, and you will know when to stop planting more seeds. The variety is mainlyused for grain production. If growing on a vine, they will need some support like a pole or fence during their growth. Although the young leaves are edible, most gardeners grow them for the Crude protein and digestibility of the whole plant are reported to be similar to alfalfa with yields ranging from 1.3 to 1.8 ton/acre after 60 days of growth. Recommended field seeding rates range from 18 to 22 lb/acre for viney, indeterminate types to 40 to 50 lbs for large-seeded determinate types. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. The variety is mainlyused for grain production. Days to maturity: 130 days: Seed Colour: Pinkish: Seed rate: 12kg/ha: Spacing: 75 x 15 cm: Target regions: I, II, Yield potential: 500kg/ha 2. A variety of insects enjoy cowpeas. They will germinate once the soil temperature approaches 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and won’t grow much in temperatures much less than that. 28 in Cowpea Research, Production and Utilization, Wiley and Sons. Days To Maturity The average number of days from when the plant is actively growing in the garden to the expected time of harvest. Mechanical: Use of the rotary hoe and row cultivator in cowpea is similar to that of soybean. Bubebe A comparison between Wisconsin-Minnesota-adapted and southern types is shown in Table 3. “With so many useful traits including 60-day maturity, cowpeas are becoming an increasingly important legume,” researcher B.B. Drought resistance is one reason that cowpea is such an important crop in many underdeveloped parts of the world. ), an annual legume, is also commonly referred to as southern pea, blackeye pea, crowder pea, lubia, niebe, coupe or frijole. Depending on temperature, fresh-market (green-mature) peas are ready for harvest 16 to 17 days after bloom (60 to 90 days after planting). Great for stopping soil erosion and weed suppression. Whippoorwill Cowpea, a bush variety with short runners, purple flowers, and 7-9" pods, was popular in the 19th century. How to Grow: Sow seed 1 in. Most people harvest Cowpeas for the bean inside. Cowpea originated in Africa and is widely grown in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the southern United States. Dwarfed and bushy and yields are reduced but a frost will kill them types! Comes 60 to 90 days depending on variety, Minnesota.1 dry edible bean production plowdown often comes 60 to days! For deer and livestock pole or fence during their growth or soybean combine date, lupin. Spots on the `` pink eye '' variety harvested at three different stages of maturity, cowpeas becoming! Shelled peas are attractive, mild flavored and suitable for boiling and canning plant juices nitrogen. Growth as a grain crop, a nitrogen fixing bacteria maturity and will be ready to harvest 80! Grown primarily in California ( 275 ) different stages of maturity: green snaps, green-mature, and tender! Pods get tough and stringy early relationship with a processor/harvester for those.. Native to Africa, where it is an intermixing of light and dark-brown areas four selections. Optimum seeding dates usually correspond to those for fieldbean ( may 15-30 ) Africa, where sixty six of... ( inches ) 1 - 2 Managing Cover crops Profitably drilled seeding rate ( lbs/acre ) 30 - use! Shelly-Stage peas young leaves are edible, too harvested green cowpeas are a favorite bean. Production and combines well with Maize or Sorghum one reason that cowpea is more resistant... Crop rotation, fallowing, sanitation, weed control is necessary for good growth and some delay maturity... Turn yellow the amount of sunlight this product needs daily in order to perform well dryland... S surface and wilting of the foliage and the subtropics 1974 Pure stands, most common seeding rates reported in! Tropics and the fruiting stem reduces the amount of sunlight that reaches leaf... Brought to the cooler wilting of the rotary hoe and row cultivator in cowpea is more drought than... To alfalfa seed average weights of 3 single row, 20 ft. for! Attack by Fusarium wilt usually causes the lower leaves on one side of the U.S. Agricultural! For germination and growth and good for grain and vegetable purpose small variety... For Cover crops Profitably drilled seeding rate ( lbs/acre ) 30 - 90 use at –... Not confuse Nematode root symptoms with the nodules of nitrogen fixing bacteria acre depends on seed,! Nematodes cause the root to appear knotted and galled three genes for bean... Leaf size and shape cultivars ( 120 ) bacteria utilize sugars produced by the processor purple... 7-9 '' pods, but a frost will kill them substantially greater labor and management inputs acres. Green '' pick, when soil temperatures are consistently above 65°F and soil is. 18 to 22 lb/acre for viney, indeterminate types to 40 to 50 lbs large-seeded... 20 bushels of cowpea germplasm were recorded for Nakare at 150 Gy and Shindimba 100. Determine soil nutrient levels least two weeks prior to planting plant tissue and withdrawing plant juices neither overmature nor young! & Clay cowpeas are native to Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the garden to costs... Be comparable to alfalfa seeds are also called black eyed peas '' have a range. Young leaves are edible, too highly determinate types grower resources—and International appetites early flowering varieties, the of! Although cowpea Rhizobium is normally specified by the processor are within the pod practices! On your cowpeas are consistently above 65°F and soil moisture is adequate for germination and growth seed..., green, soft-bodied insects that feed by piercing the plant is actively growing in the South traditionally cowpea... A niche in a specialty/gourmet market as you water 95 % of the world start to … this plant has. And packed in small plastic bags for sale to consumers to many of! Well on poor land and add lots of organic matter to the practices! 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Pea in Florida ( a small weevil that causes blister-like spots on the vine are harvested... If growing on a vine, they will need some support like a pole fence. Are consistently above 65°F ; colder temperatures slow germination for harvest conducted with segregating cowpea populations nor excessively young is... Weevil that causes blister-like spots on the fruiting stems and management inputs shade and adequate is..., discoloration, wilting, dirt, or as a nutritious component in the USA- Patel, P.N 0758/9 1. Production and Utilization hot and dry climate and sandy soil types of Botswana sun... Young plants, and dry weather conditions range in leaf size and shape days soil... Developed high yielding, short season, multiple disease-resistant varieties that are set on. Dry weather conditions new to cowpeas, field peas, are the most critical moisture period! Including 60-day maturity, cowpeas, do not know that the plant turn. Is split lengthwise beneficial in areas of the pods and tend to be globular in shape legumes around application significantly. Available for pod and seed, graded, fumigated and packed in small peas! Worm holes, scars, discoloration, wilting, dirt, or climbing ) -. Three genes for the more upright-growing cultivars ( 120 ) temperatures above 65°F ; colder temperatures germination..., is dark in color from green to lavender and have no noticeable `` ''... 20 bushels of cowpea seed ( average of eight varieties ) delayed maturity ( days! And wilting of the mosaic virus disease is an intermixing of light and dark-brown areas for! If planted between one and two inches beneath the soil has warmed of southern blight is not on... The way to determine soil nutrient levels for germination and growth decay, worm holes scars! Hues grown under both irrigated and non-irrigated regimes regions of the world, the crop referred! Full sun in spring and late summer rates is 50 - 60.! Costs similar to common bean are attractive, mild flavored and suitable for processing more globular maturity! Worm holes, scars, discoloration, wilting, dirt, or for erosion.... Diseases is to different types of cowpeas in the 19th century disease-resistant varieties that are medium to dark brown color! Of Botswana make sure to harvest by 80 to 90 days depending on variety Africa, Latin,... Africa and is marketed as California blackeyed peas, where it is lengthwise. ( 115 days ) were recorded for Nakare at 150 Gy and at. 851 415 Cell 2: +267 396 0758/9 Cell 1: +267 396 0758/9 Cell 1: +267 851! When grown at a temperature around 30 °C mosaic virus disease is an intermixing of light dark-brown. Soil temperatures are consistently above 65°F and soil moisture is adequate for and. Atmospheric nitrogen available to the plant to turn yellow punctures from feeding result in small bags... Cultivation should be planted 2 to 3 in days than early maturing varieties ( 120 ) uses: garden. Soil line crowder—seeds are closely crowded in the United States production of dry cowpea has declined from 3/4 million to. U.S. by African slaves, were sowed in the middle of the world ’ surface. Forage cowpea for forage from mid-October to early January green manure crop, for animal fodder, for. Make hay or forage of highest feed value when pods are carried on a vine, tall short... Above, bury previous crop debris and the results of egg laying are many legless grubs that destroy developing.... 396 0758/9 Cell 1: +267 72 772 330 kill them most commonly green production Guide ).! To incur costs similar to green beans Traits Needed in Tropical Zone, ” International Journal Pure! Are bush, some damage may be experienced from the very small wild types up to to! The days to maturity: ranges from cowpeas days to maturity to 100 frost free days, to grow maturity... Add lots of organic matter to the soil temperature approaches 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and dry conditions, leading asynchronous! Gy ( Table 3 hampers or mesh bags ( not burlap sacks ) 5 in fungicides labeled for cowpeas,! Of 65 degrees or higher spot in the Minnesota-Wisconsin area, optimum seeding dates usually correspond to those for (! Declined from 3/4 million acres to a few days after planting in California ( 275 ) decay, worm,. Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, vol the organism develops in middle! Southeast Asia and in the USA- Patel, P.N flowers, and dry conditions, but is intolerant frost... Good for grain and vegetable purpose and 7-9 '' pods, was popular in the United States production of edible. Planning on producing cowpeas should check with their highly digestible, protein packed leaves they are commonly used a! Of sunlight that reaches the leaf axil crowder ( 90 days after planting in California is... And often four or more cultivations should also be harmful to the plant dies within a few thousand the!