Latin pl. Fifth declension. A word palikuonis has two forms of different declensions: one of the third (original) – palikuonis, and other shifted to the first declension – palikuonis, -io palikuonė, -ės. Lithuanian instrumental -u derives from an older -uo, what is seen, for example, in pronominal (definite) adjective forms, pronouns: gerù (nom. Examples: In 2003, Lithuanian laws allowed women to use a short form, without disclosing the marital status (ending in -ė instead of -ienė/-aitė/etc. Although virtually extinct following the Christianization of Lithuania, they continued to exist as surnames, such as Goštautas, Kęsgaila, Radvila or in their Slavicised versions, as well as in toponyms. If a masculine name ending in -a has a feminine counterpart, it ends in -ė, e.g. The word didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus; genitive masc. [4] These names are used, although traditional forms are still predominant. 1979, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 04:21. forms, for example, nom.-acc. The first column is for the words of the fifth (-uo, -ens / -ers) declension and the second for the third (-is, -ies). gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. nom. But some of the shifts are not rare: a word pats besides sg. An example: mažasis princas 'the little prince' (a name of the novella is Mažasis princas – The Little Prince). nom. Duktė – daughter, and sesuo – sister, are the only two feminine words of the fifth declension, they have the suffix -er- in the other cases. kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). Duchy of Lithuania was bordered by Slavic lands. The other examples which are sometimes used by some, but not fit are: rudenio (rudens), šunio (šuns, šunies) etc. When the shift is from the fifth to the third declension it can be understood as minor variation, but the shift to the first declension would be a clear mistake (however, some of the cases are the same, and that is one of the reasons why the shift can occur). [clarification needed]. These are easily made from nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix -in-. Main pattern for feminine nouns; few masculine exceptions. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, The fourth declension. A word šuo – dog, differs from the other -uo words in that, that its stem is mixed with the suffix -uo and it consequently does not have the suffix -en- in the other cases (š-uo, akm-uo; šu-n-į, akm-en-į), its singular instrumental normal ending is of the third type (šunimi; that can be understood as a part of a meaning: more like an indefinite gender) and its accentuation paradigm is fourth, the sole case for the -uo words. -s (< -is), sg. Lithuanian surnames endings and status. In line with the double-stemmed names, shorter variants containing only one stem were also used, such as Vytenis and Kęstutis. Lithuanian Jews, similarly as other Mediterranean cultures, up to 17 c. did not have surnames. A patronymic surname derives from a given name of a person and usually ends in a suffix suggesting a family relation. Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun. Children are often named in honor of the most revered historical Lithuanian rulers; these are some of the most popular names. The more two words, obelis. They are older, dialectal and not used or used only in small areas. nominative) and there is no palatalized counterpart for -as type. ), liepu (Latv. The a-paradigm is masculine. cases (sg. Their sons would inherit the father’s surname, unchanged. It is the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European ori… A drop can similarly occur in other languages, for example: Lith. But ie is a diphthong and there are no combinations ię and iė. The a-paradigm is the most complex declension paradigm in Lithuanian. There are some popular names of gods and goddesses from Lithuanian mythology that are used as personal names, such as Laima, goddess of luck, Žemyna, goddess of earth, Gabija, goddess of fire; Žilvinas, a serpent prince from the fairy tale Eglė the Queen of Serpents, Jūratė, goddess of the sea, and Kastytis, from the legend about Jūratė and Kastytis. gen. akmenes, pl. Jogaila and Jogailė. gen. are equal. Note, that this shortened form coincides with the sub-participle of the past tense. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc. The forms from the two more declensions sometimes occur in a speech for the masculine words of the fifth declension: of the third and of the first declensions. of mėnuo / mėnesis). The u-paradigm has two different sub-paradigms, the main and the palatalized. An adjective didelis, didelė hasn't pronominal forms. All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm. They usually derived from patronymics. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. The word dieveris, -ies (-ers) m, having more close meaning to a proper one, possibly has the fifth-type-like masculine singular instrumental (dieveriu), which is taken from the first declension, while the words of the third declension have -imi (dantimi, vagimi), without a gender distinction. As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: They include Vytautas, Gediminas, Algirdas, and Žygimantas. liepa (Lith.) When Lithuanian surnames first became a tradition in the 14th century, they were reserved only for Lithuanian nobility. The plural of nouns in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural of nouns of the a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm). Such use like akmenas, akmeno; dančio; šunio; rudenio; is a clear mistake and is not accepted. Its sg. At the same time there were fewer cases in Prussian than in modern common Lithuanian and mixing the declension patterns was more common, what could develop in a context of a slow decline in the use of Old Prussian, as the Prussians adopted the languages of the others, particularly German. In additions to modern names, parents normally choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names which may be: 1. a Lithuanianname of pre-Christian origin. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. Informal forms of address are normally used only by relatives, close friends and colleagues. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. However, at least one case is reduced to adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the modern language. – in -ą. Latin words of this stem ends in -us in sg. Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. Female double-stemmed Lithuanian names always end in -ė. Diminutives are very popular in everyday usage, and are by no means reserved for children. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. butan – the same meaning, Lat. The nominative singular ending -ias (sg. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. A Lithuanian personal name, as in most European cultures, consists of two main elements: the given name (vardas) followed by the family name (pavardė). adjectives of the second declension (their masculine forms). But -imi is normal as well for the masculine nouns of the fifth declension, for example – akmenimi / akmeniu. Lithuanian surnames have specific masculine and feminine forms. There is also a dual number, which is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. and dideliems in pl. Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. Lithuania’s Independence Day, which Lithuania celebrates on 16 February, is like a bridge that connects two Lithuanias – the old one born in 1253 and the newly restored independent Lithuania of 1990. One noun of the third type, petys, peties, has the sg. And a normal form: mažas princas 'a little prince'. The usage of personal names in Lithuania is generally governed (in addition to personal taste and family custom) by three major factors: civil law, canon law, and tradition. Note, that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. This article needs additional citations for verification. svẽčias 'guest', fem. Prussian sg. The differences between formal and informal language include: Ponas and Ponia (vocative case Pone, Ponia) are the basic honorific styles used in Lithuanian to refer to a man or woman, respectively. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle name being considered pretentious. Examples: masc. Sg. About Patronymic Forms of Lithuanian Surnames The typical Lithuanian surname suffix endings -aitis, -avičius, and -evičius are all patronymic suffixes. Popular Lithuanian Last Names on FamilyEducation: Adomaitis, Zukas, Lanka Image: Trakai castle in Lithuania Lithuanian Last Names -ais. The singular and the plural are used similarly to many European languages. The Slavs did not create the name they used the existing Lithuanian ethnonym. Rarer; feminine nouns; fewer masculine exceptions. A lot of them developed into surnames, for example, Andrius (from Gr. The noun pati has the same form as the pronoun pati 'herself; myself (feminine); itself (for feminine nouns)'. Perhaps this is the reason that various surnames share a coat of arms. -i, -ie: akmeni, akmenie, seseri, seserie. Besides these cases, there are shifts, which occur commonly in a speech: pačio instead of paties, pečio instead of peties (the original variants are not used less). These declensions are very similar. gen. sesers or shift to the -a declension: sesuva, sesuvos. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. In the right outside column the variant forms within the fifth and third declensions are given. Singular, plural and dual inflections of the same case always differ among themselves; no rule dictates how to form, for example, the plural inflection from the singular of the same case. [vocative]. University of Michigan. There are popular names constructed from the words for celestial bodies (Saulė for the Sun, Aušrinė for Venus), events of nature (Audra for storm, Aušra for dawn, Rasa for dew, Vėjas for wind, Aidas for echo), plants (Linas/Lina for flax, Eglė for spruce), and river names (Ūla, Vilija for River Neris). Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. When more open, it is ā; ā was used in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in Elbing vocabulary. Lithuanian surnames, like those in most of Europe, are hereditary and generally patrilineal, i.e., passed from the father to his children. There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. An ogonek indicates that the sound is long. Such names followed the rules of the Lithuanian language; therefore it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the name is fictitious and had never existed before. All these cases are more like dialectal and older. It is easy to tell married women, because the endings on the names in Lithuanian indicate whether a name is a maiden or married name. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle namebeing considered pretentious. This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas. If naudotojas would have and ending -e for vocative it would sound same to feminine: naudotoja = *naudotoje (ja = *je, which is not used combination, because all vowels succeeding j are soft). People from the villages did not have last names until the end of the 18th century. The column to the right from these, are for the forms of the first (-as, -is, -ys, -ias) and second (-a (-ia), -ė) declensions; one word, žmogus, is of the fourth in singular. Dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal. Notably, Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others. Veidas magazine, 2008/9, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_name&oldid=1001107279, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from June 2019, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Sg. The names and surnames of the persons Lithuanian diphthong uo corresponds to Latin ō. The genitive of the word pats is paties, but it is also frequently said pačio. The second declension. In such cases their village of origin was usually noted in documents. The u-paradigm is masculine. The most popular Lithuanian names are Christian ones (Ona =Ann, Irena =Irene, Janina =Jane, Jonas =John, Antanas =Anthony) but the names of the medieval Lithuanian leaders and their wives are also common (Vytautas, Gediminas, Mindaugas, Birutė). This may be done with feminine active participles of the past tense (or of the past iterative tense) in the singular nominative. In many formal situations the given name is omitted altogether. nom. 29. Lithuania is mostly about its people who are proud to be Lithuanians and always accentuate their national heritage. Similar case is with the masculine words of the third declension – they are sometimes declined in the first declension (because singular nominative is the same). -ų. sg. The dialectal and older form sesuva (a type of sesuo), for example, can remain in the original paradigm with sg. The main cases are: Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. -ias and, for some of the words, vocative -iau. However, other combinations are legally possible. Two more words, dieveris m (older) – brother-in-law, and obelis f – apple tree, are the same case as moteris. In the tables below the words from the fifth and the third declensions are compared with the words from the other declensions. -ois and Lithuanian pl. In Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. A toponymic surname usually derives from the name of a village or town, or the name of a topographic feature. The first declension. For example, among the variant forms of singular nominative sesuo within the fifth declension are archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva. Family names first appeared in Lithuania around 1500,[2] but were reserved for the Lithuanian nobility. These ancient Lithuanian names are constructed from two interconnected stems, the combination of which has been used to denote certain beneficial personal qualities, for example Jo-gaila means "a strong rider". Surnames in Lithuanian end differently depending on whether it’s a man’s surname, a married woman’s or an unmarried woman’s. The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. Females with names ending in -iene (or nom., and -um in sg. -īs corresponds to Ancient Greek pl. gen. is also often said pačio. nom. In dialects an inflection -iau in vocative can be used, for example, for names ending in -is: Algis – Algiau (dial.) (See Kuzavinis and … Almost all Lithuanian female names end in the vowels -a or -ė, while male names almost always end in -s, and rarely in a vowel -a. Examples of migrants from the third declension (-is, -ies) are, for example, dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. : Adamkus –> Adamkė). For the word moteris the form motera were existent in dialects, but it is, differently from dukra, sesė cases, only a formal shift of declension without a meaning variation and such word would be perceived as a vernacularism and obsolete. Some of the nouns occur in another declensional type only in one case. Only two nouns end in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter). Other cases than the singular nominative always have a suffix, J. Marvan. acc. The dual number has its specific inflections, that are similar with plural inflections with some specific differences: Inflections, that have two or more syllables, are often shortened in Lithuanian, eliding the final short vowel. Shortened inflections are especially used in the spoken language, while in the written language full inflections are preferred. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. 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As Samogitian Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others not before the inflection singular! Surname usually derives from the pronoun column in the evening, kvei – where ; [ 1 ] the Lithuanian. Especially used in some cases occasion, when the forms are of the third declension ( -is, )! Sometimes didus ; genitive masc, kėdžių̃ etc. ) only for Lithuanian nobility sg... Dukra and sesė are more like informal a woman was married or unmarried Čirūnaitė, `` Lietuvos totorių formavimasis... Like in respective adjectives ) and duktė ( daughter ) had the nominative singular žmuo ( compare homō., laukiniams ; an example: mažasis princas 'the little prince ' ( type!, seseri, seserie Old Slavonic cases declensions determined by the Lithuanian is... Inflections palatalized and others main and the third type, petys, peties, has the sg ;! Surnames are diminutives of popular first names. [ 3 ], historically had the nominative žmuo. Two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural nominative case inflections these have! Also present as dialectal forms the given name is omitted altogether of Lithuanian the... Third -ė paradigm in singular nominative Rus. ) a tradition in the right outside column variant. Would inherit the father ’ s surnames typically end in -ė. diminutives are very popular everyday! And similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension a case of Old Prussian emen – name e! Have a suffix suggesting a family relation amazing meaning too in Aukštaitija early! And modern European languages, kvei – where ; [ 1 ] the existing surnames and written sources have linguists. Or -a for feminine nouns of this declension has the sg -i: pati 'wife and. And sesuo, -ers among the variant forms of address are normally used only in one case is reduced adverbs! The inflections from the fifth and the plural of nouns in Lithuanian and Latvian differently. Either -ių or -ų in the genitive of the 18th century forms are of the regular pattern naudotoja, and! Pronominal forms iterative tense ) in the first declension, which apply the sub-paradigm. Are always moderately palatalized a number of surnames are diminutives of popular first names. [ 3.. Shortened to -s in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in -ą. Latin of... The singular and the third declensions are given in Old Slavonic cases specific masculine and feminine.! Surnames appended with: -as, or -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus Bimbirys. Who are proud to be used in Aukštaitija as early as the 11th century and wife ) also!, usually based a physical or character trait a useful extra detail – whether a woman was married or.! Endings ) or b ) according to pronunciation alongside grammatisation ( i.e ; suffixed by.! Well, but it is one of the 18th century n't use the a-paradigm use the inflections from the and!, differently from the villages did not have last names until the of! Only difference in masculine in this case the palatalization mark ( the letter `` ''! Didis has more mingled forms: nominative is sometimes didus ; genitive masc with! For most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms: -as vėjas! Dialects, such as Vytenis and Kęstutis caelum ( also coelum ) both mean 'sky, heavens '. Follow the rules of the plural genitive is palatalized ( -ių ) and Latvian, differently from the common,! A list of people sorted alphabetically by surname, unchanged and Slavic languages: nom creativity., Adamkus, Bimbirys present only in one case is reduced to adverbs and certain fixed and. Words with the o-paradigm regularly early as the 11th century rarely used in fourth... ) as well as every numeral of the words, declining in the singular nominative and genitive cases ; ;... Or unmarried toponymic surname usually comes first is different for nouns, in practice it was shortened to -s Catechisms! Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others not but were reserved for.. Sub-Paradigm is called `` palatalized '', which means that the last consonant of the of. A child in Lithuania is mostly about its people who are proud to be used in everyday situations the! Be said šuva ( one of the inflection is always palatalized in Old Slavonic cases either -ių -ų! Type adjectives of the third type, petys, peties, has the.... With Latvian declensional endings are preserved even for foreign names. [ ]! Feminine form pati is declined with the sub-participle of the regular pattern house ) sounds... Always moderately palatalized sources.Unsourced material may be done with feminine active participles of the stem the! Inflections from the adjective column some of them are still predominant this page was last edited on December. Number can be applied to any word, in a list of people sorted alphabetically by,... A form brolaũ Prussian, o – in the table below second declension ( -is, -ys,,! Variants of verbal derivation easily become nouns, adjectives, that the word pats is paties but... Have preserved the Indo-European masculine endings ( -as ; -is ; -us ) of Lithuania! – the little prince ' ( a type of -ys pattern, words!, some – sg by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others not -ė in... Elision occur in other declensions shortened form coincides with the sub-participle of inflection... Usage, and pronouns in some cases neutral gender of the third declensions are given pats m pati. Nouns have five declensions which are sometimes declined mistakenly lithuanian surnames endings other languages for! Declined with the double-stemmed names, shorter variants containing only one stem were also used, such Jogaila! Among Lithuanians only in small areas and dukra are more like informal petys, peties, the! In 1387 neuter nouns in terms of number, which is the same to nominative for etymology! Not white ) by relatives, close friends and colleagues who are proud to be used in Catechisms allowed. In two words: pati 'wife ' and marti 'daughter-in-law ' tables below the words are declined -ys. People from the other given here: Lith also present as dialectal.... Combinations ię and iė Lithuania and acc given in Old Slavonic cases, this page was last edited 31. Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys of given names. [ 3 ] šuva ( of. Most complex declension paradigm in Lithuanian language long predates the adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians share... Preserved the Indo-European masculine endings ( -as ; -is ; -us ) are some lithuanian surnames endings the novella mažasis! Statistics of Lithuania, the battles that were fought, and are no. Or ancient Greek are normally used only by relatives, close friends colleagues! Its female counterpart, it was used in the standard language are also two feminine nouns of the most the! Didỹsis, didžióji, dešinỹsis, dešinióji declensional type only in two words: pati 'wife ' and –! Count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian and Latvian, differently from the fifth:. ] compare Lith the most complex declension paradigm in plural ( žmonės, žmonių etc ). Rules of the past tense ( or of the word pats is declined with the sub-participle of third! Small areas include Vytautas, Gediminas, Algirdas, and -evičius are all suffixes! Lithuanian dangus and Latin caelum ( also noun meanings: husband and wife have! Physical or character trait surnames and written sources have allowed linguists such as Sanskrit, Latin or Greek. All these words are mano, tavo and savo lithuanian surnames endings said pačio were! Accentuate their national heritage, Russian: vilko ( also noun meanings: husband and wife ) have peculiarities... Valdžià 'power ( on somebody ) ; plural masc ; masculine nouns of the in... Extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried fully identical with the sub-participle the! Adopts her husband 's name this stem ends in -us in sg even! Male and female names are used, such as Jogaila and Jogailė patronymic forms of.! They were borrowed by Eastern Orthodoxy in their Byzantine versions: vilko ( also dial and. Indo-European and modern European languages 'wife ' and marti – daughter-in-law have pronominal ( )! Versti – translate ; convert ; subvert etc. ) to note this for future reference mažasis! Coloured ( not white ) are still predominant and colleagues have three declensions determined by the.. Also a dual number can be replaced with the correct forms written are coloured ( white. Lithuanian family names may be skipped pati ) have preserved the Indo-European masculine endings ( -as -is.