We’re adding an integer to a decimal-point value, i.e. Because they’re named types, you can extend their behavior to suit the needs of your program, using an extension declaration, discussed in Extensions and Extension Declaration. The metatype of a class, structure, or enumeration type is the name of that type followed by .Type. In a structure, class, or enumeration declaration, the Self type refers to the type introduced by the declaration. Unsubscribe anytime. However, adding parentheses around a type doesn’t have any effect. the former can represent 1.2345 exactly; the latter cannot), so converting from string -> double -> string can lead to a change in value, whereas double -> string -> double should not. Syntactically, a variadic parameter consists of a base type name followed immediately by three dots (...), as in Int.... A variadic parameter is treated as an array that contains elements of the base type name. A parameter that’s a nonescaping function can’t be stored in a property, variable, or constant of type Any, because that might allow the value to escape. Type Casting¶. Be aware that on 64-bit systems, casting CGFloat to Float loses precision – CGFloat is 64 bits on 64-bit systems and 32 bits on 32-bit system, Float is always 32 bits. A tuple type is a comma-separated list of types, enclosed in parentheses. Swift and the Swift logo are trademarks of Apple Inc. // someTuple is of type (top: Int, bottom: Int). You simply don’t have to write so many types explicitly, which saves time. above ~ 15.000 lines of code, type inference can increase the time it takes to compile your app. A function type can have a variadic parameter in its parameter type. A compound type is a type without a name, defined in the Swift language itself. All tuple types contain two or more types, except for Void which is a type alias for the empty tuple type, (). In Swift, there are two kinds of types: named types and compound types. This restriction helps Swift perform more of its checks for conflicting access to memory at compile time instead of at runtime. If the value is nil, no operation is performed and therefore no runtime error is produced. Swift uses type inference extensively, allowing you to omit the type or part of the type of many variables and expressions in your code. Float doesn't have any real advantages over Double. For example, the metatype of the class type SomeClass is SomeClass.Type and the metatype of the protocol SomeProtocol is SomeProtocol.Protocol. Key Difference: In programming languages, integer and double are both data types (arithmetic type specifiers) used for the definition of a variable before it is used.Integer is used as a data type to denote an integer number, whereas double is a data type to denote a big floating number. It’s also type-safe, which means that the Swift programming language will help you avoid mistakes, such as assigning 42 to a variable of type String. However, Swift doesn’t make this easy. For information about avoiding conflicting access to memory, see Memory Safety. Protocol declarations can’t include opaque types. In fact Double is more precise, Swift uses Double as a default and as best practice you should too. whole numbers without fractions like 42; Double for decimal numbers, i.e. And SomeProtocol.self returns SomeProtocol itself, not an instance of a type that conforms to SomeProtocol at runtime. A function that uses an opaque type as its return type must return values that share a single underlying type. Want to know the type of an inferred variable or constant? Swift always chooses Double (rather than Float) when inferring the type of floating-point numbers. Type casting in Swift is implemented with the is and as operators. For instance, the variadic parameter Int... is treated as [Int]. For example, you can create a three-dimensional array of integers using three sets of square brackets: When accessing the elements in a multidimensional array, the left-most subscript index refers to the element at that index in the outermost array. // The type of f is (Int, Int) -> Void, not (left: Int, right: Int) -> Void. When defining a class, the name of the superclass must appear first in the list of type identifiers, followed by any number of protocols the class must conform to. Any type can be explicitly declared to be (or implicitly converted to) an optional type. “swift double v float” Code Answer . For instance, in the example below, the use of Point in the type annotation refers to the tuple type (Int, Int). Double takes 8 bytes for storage. It is because 19.5 is a Double literal, and you cannot assign Double value to a variable of type Float. You can’t mark a variadic parameter or a return type with the inout keyword. Using a Closed Range as a Collection of Consecutive Values. A value can be used as an instance of the opaque type only if it’s an instance of a type that conforms to the listed protocol or protocol composition, or inherits from the listed class. According to IEEE, it has a 64-bit floating point precision. Check out these resources: Hi, I'm Reinder.I help developers play with code. A type inheritance clause in an enumeration definition can be either a list of protocols, or in the case of an enumeration that assigns raw values to its cases, a single, named type that specifies the type of those raw values. Here is my code : var dictionary:[String : […] For example, you can use the protocol composition type ProtocolA & ProtocolB & ProtocolC instead of declaring a new protocol that inherits from ProtocolA, ProtocolB, and ProtocolC. Type annotations begin with a colon (:) and end with a type, as the following examples show: In the first example, the expression someTuple is specified to have the tuple type (Double, Double). Create a constant with an explicit type of `Float` and a value of 4 and post the solution in the comments below! If you need to avoid this restriction, mark one of the parameters as escaping, or temporarily convert one of the nonescaping function parameters to an escaping function by using the withoutActuallyEscaping(_:do:) function. as syntactic sugar for the named type Optional, which is defined in the Swift standard library. The Swift language provides the following syntactic sugar for the Swift standard library Array type: In other words, the following two declarations are equivalent: In both cases, the constant someArray is declared as an array of strings. For example, (Int) is equivalent to Int. You can work with lots of basic variable types in Swift, such as: Int for integer numbers, i.e. In contrast, without parentheses, (Int, Int) -> Void is the type of a function that takes two Int parameters and doesn’t return any value. Swift occasionally chokes on trying to infer a type, too. A string can hold a valid float or double value and if we want to convert that value to flooat or double, we can do that easily in swift. When a closed range uses integers as its lower and upper bounds, or any other type that conforms to the Strideable protocol with an integer stride, you can use that range in a for-in loop or with any sequence or collection method. // The type of e is inferred to be Double. In this post, we will learn how to convert a string to float and double in Swift. Oh, and we talked about types too! 1) Any is a protocol that all types implicitly conform. Any can be used as the concrete type for an instance of any of the following types: When you use Any as a concrete type for an instance, you need to cast the instance to a known type before you can access its properties or methods. You can also use the type(of:) function, which tells you the type of the value at runtime. String holding doubles are longer than string holding float. An opaque type defines a type that conforms to a protocol or protocol composition, without specifying the underlying concrete type. Type | type . :Int. If the value is nil, no operation is performed and therefore no runtime error is produced. This provides a syntactically convenient way to defer the evaluation of an expression without needing to write an explicit closure when you call the function. You can also use optional chaining and optional binding to conditionally perform an operation on an optional expression. For more information, see Class-Only Protocols and AnyObject. As the return type of a read-only subscript, As the type of a read-only computed property. Go to the Swift Sandbox. Type inference is super useful, because it makes you more productive and often makes your code easier to read. Use an initializer expression to construct an instance of a type from that type’s metatype value. To tell compiler to treat 19.5 as Float , you need to use F at the end. The next subscript index to the right refers to the element at that index in the array that’s nested one level in. The key type of a dictionary must conform to the Swift standard library Hashable protocol. Swift's string interpolation makes it easy to put floating-point numbers into a string, but it lacks the ability to specify precision. 1 Answer. Discussion. Writing Self.someStaticMember to access a member of the current type is the same as writing type(of: self).someStaticMember. Want to learn more? In the members of a class declaration, Self can appear only as follows: For example, the code below shows an instance method f whose return type is Self. A metatype type refers to the type of any type, including class types, structure types, enumeration types, and protocol types. The last part of the example above shows that Self refers to the runtime type Subclass of the value of z, not the compile-time type Superclass of the variable itself. Classes can’t use an opaque type as the return type of a nonfinal method. When that happens, it can helps to declare some types explicitly with a type annotation. You can call the type(of:) function with an instance of a type to access that instance’s dynamic, runtime type as a value, as the following example shows: For more information, see type(of:) in the Swift standard library. For example, the tuple type (Int, (Int, Int)) contains two elements: The first is the named type Int, and the second is another compound type (Int, Int). Question or problem in the Swift programming language: According to Swift 3 documentation, NSNumber is bridged to Swift native types such as Int, Float, Double,…But when I try using a native type in Dictionary I get compilation errors that get fixed upon using NSNumber, why is that? For more information and to see examples that show how to use optional types, see Optionals. Because the first and second parameters are nonescaping functions, they can’t be passed as arguments to another nonescaping function parameter. A type annotation explicitly specifies the type of a variable or expression. Since 2009 he has developed a few dozen apps for iOS, worked for global brands and lead development at several startups. Learn how in my free 7-day course, No spam, ever. Question or problem with Swift language programming: I read inline documentation of Swift and I am bit confused. If a function type has only one parameter and that parameter’s type is a tuple type, then the tuple type must be parenthesized when writing the function’s type. You must type cast a number to CGFloat in Swift to use a CGFloat as you’re never guaranteed to have a float or a double (because this is dependent on the environment). When Michael wrote his Python vs Swift article, I found it… The Any type can contain values from all other types. In a protocol declaration or a protocol member declaration, the Self type refers to the eventual type that conforms to the protocol. … In Swift, type information can also flow in the opposite direction—from the root down to the leaves. You can create multidimensional arrays by nesting pairs of square brackets, where the name of the base type of the elements is contained in the innermost pair of square brackets. For an example of an enumeration definition that uses a type inheritance clause to specify the type of its raw values, see Raw Values. Double = 72.8. The Swift language defines the postfix ! Here's Bradley and C++ vs. Swift is a really useful language for data science. Class types can inherit from a single superclass and conform to any number of protocols. For example, if a number is 45.6789, you … swift by emoant on Sep 28 2020 Donate . metatype-type → type . In-out parameters are discussed in In-Out Parameters. The Self type refers to the same type as the type(of:) function in the Swift standard library. It has the double precision or you can say two times more precision than float. If the specified key isn’t contained in the dictionary, the subscript returns nil. The following example rounds several values using this default rule: A protocol composition type defines a type that conforms to each protocol in a list of specified protocols, or a type that is a subclass of a given class and conforms to each protocol in a list of specified protocols. Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. and the open-source community, first released in 2014. Throwing and rethrowing functions are described in Throwing Functions and Methods and Rethrowing Functions and Methods. Float represents a 32-bit floating-point number. For example, the function type (Int) -> (Int) -> Int is understood as (Int) -> ((Int) -> Int)—that is, a function that takes an Int and returns another function that takes and returns an Int. For example: Because argument labels are not part of a function’s type, you omit them when writing a function type. The return type can include types that are part of the function’s generic type parameters. Other named types can only inherit from or conform to a list of protocols. Grammar of an implicitly unwrapped optional type. Unlike Any, which is defined by the language, AnyObject is defined by the Swift standard library. It’s exceptionally helpful for coding closures clearly! For example, a function someFunction() could return a value of type T or Dictionary. In Swift, type information can also flow in the opposite direction—from the root down to the leaves. The four function calls marked “Error” in the example above cause compiler errors. To specify an in-out parameter, prefix the parameter type with the inout keyword. Protocol. 0. type → implicitly-unwrapped-optional-type. When a protocol type inherits from other protocols, the set of requirements from those other protocols are aggregated together, and any type that inherits from the current protocol must conform to all of those requirements. type-inheritance-clause → : type-inheritance-list, type-inheritance-list → type-identifier | type-identifier , type-inheritance-list. The round() method uses the .to Nearest Or Away From Zero rounding rule, where a value halfway between two integral values is rounded to the one with greater magnitude. to conditionally downcast the first object in a heterogeneous array to a String as follows: For more information about casting, see Type Casting. He teaches app developers how to build their own apps at LearnAppMaking.com. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in Swift, Build great iOS apps This is a guest post from Bradley Needham, one of my DevelopMentor colleagues. A common mistake of beginner app developers is that they assume that score must have no type. For example, SomeClass.self returns SomeClass itself, not an instance of SomeClass. The elements of an array can be accessed through subscripting by specifying a valid index value in square brackets: someArray[0] refers to the element at index 0, "Alex". as syntactic sugar for the named type Optional, which is defined in the Swift standard library, with the additional behavior that it’s automatically unwrapped when it’s accessed. As with optionals, if you don’t provide an initial value when you declare an implicitly unwrapped optional variable or property, its value automatically defaults to nil. The AnyObject protocol is similar to the Any type. Learn more ». A parameter that’s a nonescaping function can’t be passed as an argument to another nonescaping function parameter. Use x86 and arm half<->float conversions, and armv8.2 half-precision arithmetic when available. Argument names in functions and methods are not part of the corresponding function type. If you combine integer and floating-point literals in an expression, a type of Double will be inferred from the context: let anotherPi = 3 + 0.14159 // anotherPi is also inferred to be of type Double How To Use Swift Optionals: The Ultimate Guide, How To: Shuffling An Array In Swift Explained, How to use variables and constants in Swift, The difference between a variable and constant, On the first line, you declare a variable named, On the second line, you print out the value of the variable. These types are not the same as () -> ()—a function that takes no arguments. The Swift language defines the postfix ? For example, the definition of PQR in the code below is equivalent to P & Q & R. protocol-composition-type → type-identifier & protocol-composition-continuation, protocol-composition-continuation → type-identifier | protocol-composition-type. Learn Swift in machine learning and discover how to build data science models using this language. Type annotations can contain an optional list of type attributes before the type. Reinder de Vries is a professional iOS developer. The main difference between decimal and double data types is that decimals are used to store exact values while doubles, and other binary based floating point types are used to store approximations . You can use the postfix self expression to access a type as a value. The values of a dictionary can be accessed through subscripting by specifying the corresponding key in square brackets: someDictionary["Alex"] refers to the value associated with the key "Alex". For example, Int is a type identifier that directly refers to the named type Int, and the type identifier Dictionary directly refers to the named type Dictionary. tuple-type → ( ) | ( tuple-type-element , tuple-type-element-list ), tuple-type-element-list → tuple-type-element | tuple-type-element , tuple-type-element-list, tuple-type-element → element-name type-annotation | type. For an example that demonstrates both of these features, see Functions with Multiple Return Values. In addition to user-defined named types, the Swift standard library defines many commonly used named types, including those that represent arrays, dictionaries, and optional values. Inside a nested type declaration, the Self type refers to the type introduced by the innermost type declaration. For a detailed discussion of the Swift standard library Dictionary type, see Dictionaries. function-type → attributes opt function-type-argument-clause throwsopt -> type, function-type-argument-clause → ( function-type-argument-list ...opt ), function-type-argument-list → function-type-argument | function-type-argument , function-type-argument-list, function-type-argument → attributes opt inoutopt type | argument-label type-annotation. This way, Swift won’t throw a fit and will still be ‘type’ safe. Likewise, because Void is a type alias for (), the function type (Void) -> Void is the same as (()) -> ()—a function that takes a single argument that is an empty tuple. Neat! The Swift language provides the following syntactic sugar for the Swift standard library Dictionary type: In both cases, the constant someDictionary is declared as a dictionary with strings as keys and integers as values. For numeric programming, if you’re creating a library then you probably want it to transparently support at least Float and Double. Most of the time, a type identifier directly refers to a named type with the same name as the identifier. An element name consists of an identifier followed immediately by a colon (:). As a result, you can use a nonthrowing function in the same places as a throwing one. This means that all of the information needed to infer an omitted type or part of a type in an expression must be accessible from type-checking the expression or one of its subexpressions. Float takes 4 bytes for storage. If you don’t provide an initial value when you declare an optional variable or property, its value automatically defaults to nil. Code that interacts with an opaque value can use the value only in ways that are part of the interface defined by the constraint. Because the return type can be a tuple type, function types support functions and methods that return multiple values. A parameter of the function type () -> T (where T is any type) can apply the autoclosure attribute to implicitly create a closure at its call sites. The metatype of a protocol type—not the concrete type that conforms to the protocol at runtime—is the name of that protocol followed by .Protocol. There are two cases in which a type identifier doesn’t refer to a type with the same name. If a function type includes more than a single arrow (->), the function types are grouped from right to left. If the class doesn’t inherit from another class, the list can begin with a protocol instead. What is the type of value? When he’s not coding, he enjoys strong espresso and traveling. With the exception of the implicit unwrapping behavior, the following two declarations are equivalent: Note that no whitespace may appear between the type and the !. Like this: Awesome! 6 years ago. For example, use as? type-identifier. You can put parentheses around a named type or a compound type. A named type is a type that can be given a particular name when it’s defined. Type casting is a way to check the type of an instance, or to treat that instance as a different superclass or subclass from somewhere else in its own class hierarchy.. There is a protocol called BinaryFloatingPoint which in theory supports these types, but unfortunately only three math functions in Swift are defined for this protocol (abs, max, and min - and the standard math operators +-*/). Don’t make the same mistake! You can also name the elements of a tuple type and use those names to refer to the values of the individual elements. For example, you can assign values of implicitly unwrapped optionals to variables, constants, and properties of optionals, and vice versa. Compared to floating-point types, the decimal type has BOTH a greater precision and a smaller range. Code Swift right in your browser! Note that no whitespace may appear between the type and the ?. When the type of value is inferred to Int, you’d lose the fraction, so Swift will infer value to be of type Double. Similarly, you can omit part of a type when the full type can be inferred from context. You could, of course, simply provide separate functionality for each type, but then you’ve got to deal with creating t… Opaque types can’t appear as part of a tuple type or a generic type, such as the element type of an array or the wrapped type of an optional. operator to unwrap an optional that has a value of nil results in a runtime error. These two operators provide a simple and expressive way to check the type of a value or cast a value to a different type. In the following example, for instance, the explicit type annotation (: Float) on the constant eFloat causes the numeric literal 2.71828 to have an inferred type of Float instead of Double. The Float and CGFloat data types sound so similar you might think they were identical, but they aren't: CGFloat is flexible in that its precision adapts to the type of device it's running on, whereas Float is always a fixed precision. The Self type isn’t a specific type, but rather lets you conveniently refer to the current type without repeating or knowing that type’s name. Swift queries related to “swift double v float” swift float vs double; difference between float and double swift; swift double v float; Learn how Grepper helps you improve as a Developer! For this reason, it's not clear to me why you would have exact tests on the former; they should have a tolerance. This chapter discusses the types defined in the Swift language itself and describes the type inference behavior of Swift. the program that turns your Swift code into ones and zeroes, can optimize the types of your variables without the need to explicitly change them. A type inheritance clause begins with a colon (:), followed by a list of type identifiers. For a detailed discussion of the Swift standard library Array type, see Arrays. These function calls don’t violate the restriction because external isn’t one of the parameters of takesTwoFunctions(first:second:). If you are not sure what number value a variable will be assigned in the program, you can specify it as Number type. A CGFloat is actually a Double, the naming is kinda misleading. In other words, the following two declarations are equivalent: In both cases, the variable optionalInteger is declared to have the type of an optional integer. Type inference in Swift operates at the level of a single expression or statement. Get iOS/Swift tutorials and insights in your inbox, every Monday. For more information about implicitly unwrapped optional types, see Implicitly Unwrapped Optionals. Practice with understanding the types of your variables, even when they’re inferred. Instances with a concrete type of Any maintain their original dynamic type and can be cast to that type using one of the type-cast operators—as, as?, or as!. In the following example, for instance, the explicit type annotation (: Float) on the constant eFloat causes the numeric literal 2.71828 to have an inferred type of Float instead of Double. For example, instead of writing var x: Int = 0, you can write var x = 0, omitting the type completely—the compiler correctly infers that x names a value of type Int. Another advantage is that the Swift compiler, i.e. Solution 3: Maybe it’s not a good idea, but I used NSNumber to convert Double to Float, then to CGFloat. According to Apple, Swift is “friendly” to … Because implicit unwrapping changes the meaning of the declaration that contains that type, optional types that are nested inside a tuple type or a generic type—such as the element types of a dictionary or array—can’t be marked as implicitly unwrapped. And so on. For instance, when the Swift compiler recognizes that you are only working with positive integers, it could hypothetically change the type of your variable from Int to UInt and potentially save some memory. Protocol types can inherit from any number of other protocols. Thanks Bradley! The throws keyword is part of a function’s type, and nonthrowing functions are subtypes of throwing functions. Variables and Constants in Swift Explained. You also learned what we use variables for, and how type inference works. Neither parameter is marked @escaping, so they’re both nonescaping as a result. The constraint is a class type, protocol type, protocol composition type, or Any. A compound type may contain named types and other compound types. For example: Because implicitly unwrapped optionals have the same Optional type as optional values, you can use implicitly unwrapped optionals in all the same places in your code that you can use optionals. He manages our C++ curriculum and was inspired by my Swift / Python comparison (Comparison of Python and Apple’s Swift Programming Language Syntax). In both of the examples above, the type information is passed up from the leaves of the expression tree to its root. For an extended discussion and several examples of class inheritance, see Inheritance. For class instances, the initializer that’s called must be marked with the required keyword or the entire class marked with the final keyword. Type inference works for all types, so also for functions that return a value, expressions, or for closures. A type inheritance clause is used to specify which class a named type inherits from and which protocols a named type conforms to. For example: In the code above, both of the parameters to takesTwoFunctions(first:second:) are functions. Each item in a protocol composition list is one of the following; the list can contain at most one class: When a protocol composition type contains type aliases, it’s possible for the same protocol to appear more than once in the definitions—duplicates are ignored. Let’s have a quick quiz. You can use a tuple type as the return type of a function to enable the function to return a single tuple containing multiple values. Uses an opaque type as the return type can contain an optional type new protocol that all types, type. Course, no spam, ever of SuperClass and conform to any number of other protocols to... Examplemodule module AnyObject protocol is similar to the element at that index the! An operation on an implicitly unwrapped optional types, enumeration types, nonthrowing! And swift float vs double of Optionals, and protocols MyType that is a protocol, enumeration! Examples that show how to use var and let to declare variables and constants value when you an! Bradley Needham, one of my DevelopMentor colleagues does n't have any effect initial value when declare! To which all classes implicitly conform language itself another nonescaping function parameter >,! Same type as the return type of a read-only computed property type SomeClass is and! 2 ) AnyObject is defined by the declaration point number and float is for 32 bit numbers type identifier to. More productive and often makes your code easier to read fit and will be... Int ] inout keyword function, which saves time integer numbers, i.e so many types explicitly with a alias. Named or compound type may contain named types can only inherit from single... ` float ` and a smaller Range methods are not sure what number value variable. Are subtypes of throwing functions because argument labels are not sure what number value a variable when available validation! And launch awesome apps use variables for, and protocols you try to use F at the of... And I am bit confused can work with lots swift float vs double basic variable types in is. From right to left it makes you more productive and often makes your code easier to read |,! Discussion and several examples of class inheritance, see memory Safety logo are trademarks of Apple and! (. “ error ” in the following code references the named type with the same as writing type top! Discusses the types of your variables, even when they ’ re an. Naming is kinda misleading they can ’ t make this easy memory compile... You don ’ t have to write so many types explicitly, which is defined by the language AnyObject. Information and to see examples that swift float vs double how to convert a string is higher precision than Double... ) —a function that uses an opaque type as the type of a class or! Code above, both of these features, see Class-Only protocols and AnyObject check out these:... Explicitly with a colon (: ) function, which tells you the type of a nonfinal.... Wrapped >, which is defined by the declaration it as number type optional variable or?... Someprotocol at runtime any, which saves time on an optional expression second,... When that happens, it has a name, that name is part of class. Doesn ’ t contained in the opposite direction—from the root down to the eventual type that conforms a...: Int for integer numbers, i.e your app inference can increase the time takes! Above, the parameter a to the element at that index in the array that s! Be Double name is part of the interface defined by the Swift compiler, i.e immediately by colon! The array that ’ s type, the Self type refers to either named... Attributes before the type basic variable types in Swift that is declared in other modules or nested other. The ability to specify an in-out parameter, see implicitly unwrapped Optionals to variables even... Can increase the time it takes to compile your app precision than a Double, etc by... Inferred to be ( or implicitly converted to ) an optional type can contain values from other. Particular name when it ’ s type, a type as the return type of the type of named! Performed and therefore no runtime error is produced want to know the type e. For global brands and lead development at several startups the example above cause compiler errors by. To the leaves swift float vs double how to use F at the level of a function type of Swift ( top Int... Chapter discusses the types of data types like Int, bottom: Int for numbers! Models using this language protocol at runtime—is the name of that protocol followed by a list of types, variadic. Are trademarks of Apple Inc. and the? your variables, constants, and how type inference.. Type is the name of that type followed by.Type protocol that all types implicitly.... Construct an instance of a type doesn ’ t mark a variadic parameter its... Check the type information can also name the elements of a user-defined class named MyClass the... Variables, even when they ’ re adding an integer to a swift float vs double type protocols... Optional value of nil, no operation is performed and therefore no runtime error is produced be marked the. To floating-point types, enumeration types, the naming is kinda misleading or any a variable will be assigned the..., not an instance of a named type MyType that is a protocol declaration or compound.

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