Some people debate if America really needed to nuke to smaller Japanese cities to get a surrender during World War II. Was Japan an innocent island nation that the big, mean Americans were steamrolling and trying to conquer? Or, were they the blood thirsty allies of Adolf Hitler who actually committed more crimes than the mainland Nazi regime in Germany. Let us look at the facts of history.
“The Japanese military during the 1930s and 1940s is often compared to the military of Nazi Germany during 1933–45 because of the sheer scale of suffering. Much of the controversy regarding Japan’s role in World War II revolves around the death rates of prisoners of war and civilians under Japanese occupation. The historian Chalmers Johnson has written that:
- It may be pointless to try to establish which World War Two Axis aggressor, Germany or Japan, was the more brutal to the peoples it victimised. The Germans killed six million Jews and 20 million Russians [i.e. Soviet citizens]; the Japanese slaughtered as many as 30 million Filipinos, Malays, Vietnamese, Cambodians, Indonesians and Burmese, at least 23 million of them ethnic Chinese. Both nations looted the countries they conquered on a monumental scale, though Japan plundered more, over a longer period, than the Nazis. Both conquerors enslaved millions and exploited them as forced labourers—and, in the case of the Japanese, as [forced] prostitutes for front-line troops. If you were a Nazi prisoner of war from Britain, America, Australia, New Zealand or Canada (but not Russia) you faced a 4% chance of not surviving the war; [by comparison] the death rate for Allied POWs held by the Japanese was nearly 30%.
According to the findings of the Tokyo Tribunal, the death rate among POWs from Asian countries, held by Japan was 27.1%. The death rate of Chinese POWs was much higher because—under a directive ratified on August 5, 1937 by Emperor Hirohito—the constraints of international law on treatment of those prisoners was removed. Only 56 Chinese POWs were released after the surrender of Japan. After March 20, 1943, the Japanese Navy was under orders to execute all prisoners taken at sea.
R. J. Rummel, a professor of political science at the University of Hawaii, states that between 1937 and 1945, the Japanese military murdered from nearly 3,000,000 to over 10,000,000 people, most likely 6,000,000 Chinese, Indonesians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Indochinese, among others, including Western prisoners of war. “This democide was due to a morally bankrupt political and military strategy, military expediency and custom, and national culture.” According to Rummel, in China alone, during 1937-45, approximately 3.9 million Chinese were killed, mostly civilians, as a direct result of the Japanese operations and 10.2 millions in the course of the war. The most infamous incident during this period was the Nanking Massacre of 1937-38, when, according to the findings of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, the Japanese Army massacred as many as 300,000 civilians and prisoners of war, although the accepted figure[by whom?] is somewhere in the hundreds of thousands. In Southeast Asia, the Manila massacre, resulted in the death of 100,000 civilians in the Philippines. It is estimated that at least one out of every 20 Filipinos died at the hand of the Japanese during the occupation. In the Sook Ching massacre, Lee Kuan Yew, the ex-Prime Minister of Singapore, said during an interview with National Geographic that there were between 50,000 and 90,000 casualties while according to Major General Kawamura Saburo, there were 5,000 casualties in total. There were other massacres of civilians e.g. the Kalagong massacre.
Historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta reports that a “Three Alls Policy” (Sankō Sakusen) was implemented in China from 1942 to 1945 and was in itself responsible for the deaths of “more than 2.7 million” Chinese civilians. This scorched earth strategy, sanctioned by Hirohito himself, directed Japanese forces to “Kill All, Burn All, and Loot All.”
Additionally, captured allied service personnel were massacred in various incidents, including:
- Laha massacre
- Banka Island massacre
- Parit Sulong
- Palawan massacre
- SS Tjisalak massacre perpetrated by Japanese submarine I-8
- Wake Island massacre – See Battle of Wake Island
- Bataan Death March
- Shinyo Maru Incident
Human experimentation and biological warfare
Many people know names like Dr. Mengele and horror stories of Nazi Germans using human skin as lampshades, making human fat soap from Jews and doing all sort of bizarre genetic and mutilating experiments. We consider these sick, but the Japanese did things even more repulsive.
Special Japanese military units conducted experiments on civilians and POWs in China. One of the most infamous was Unit 731 under Shirō Ishii. Victims were subjected to experiments including but not limited to vivisection and amputations without anesthesia and testing of biological weapons. Anesthesia was not used because it was believed to affect results.
- To determine the treatment of frostbite, prisoners were taken outside in freezing weather and left with exposed arms, periodically drenched with water until frozen solid. The arm was later amputated; the doctor would repeat the process on the victim’s upper arm to the shoulder. After both arms were gone, the doctors moved on to the legs until only a head and torso remained. The victim was then used for plague and pathogens experiments.
According to GlobalSecurity.org, the experiments carried out by Unit 731 alone caused 3,000 deaths. Furthermore, according to the 2002 International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare, the number of people killed by the Imperial Japanese Army germ warfare and human experiments is around 580,000. According to other sources, “tens of thousands, and perhaps as many as 400,000, Chinese died of bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax and other diseases…”, resulting from the use of biological warfare. Top officers of Unit 731 were not prosecuted for war crimes after the war, in exchange for turning over the results of their research to the Allies. They were also reportedly given responsible positions in Japan’s pharmaceutical industry, medical schools and health ministry.
One case of human experimentation occurred in Japan itself. At least nine out of 11 crew members survived the crash of a U.S. Army Air Forces B-29 bomber on Kyūshū, on May 5, 1945. (This plane was Lt. Marvin Watkins’ crew of the 29th Bomb Group of the 6th Bomb Squadron.) The bomber’s commander was separated from his crew and sent to Tokyo for interrogation, while the other survivors were taken to the anatomy department of Kyushu University, at Fukuoka, where they were subjected to vivisection or killed.
On March 11, 1948, 30 people, including several doctors and one female nurse, were brought to trial by the Allied war crimes tribunal. Charges of cannibalism were dropped, but 23 people were found guilty of vivisection or wrongful removal of body parts. Five were sentenced to death, four to life imprisonment, and the rest to shorter terms. In 1950, the military governor of Japan, General Douglas MacArthur, commuted all of the death sentences and significantly reduced most of the prison terms. All of those convicted in relation to the university vivisection were free after 1958.
In 2006, former IJN medical officer Akira Makino stated that he was ordered—as part of his training—to carry out vivisection on about 30 civilian prisoners in the Philippines between December 1944 and February 1945. The surgery included amputations. Ken Yuasa, a former military doctor in China, has also admitted to similar incidents in which he was compelled to participate.
Use of chemical weapons
According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Kentaro Awaya, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, gas weapons, such as tear gas, were used only sporadically in 1937 but in the spring of 1938, however the Imperial Japanese Army began full-scale use of phosgene, chlorine, Lewisite and nausea gas (red), and from summer 1939, mustard gas (yellow) was used against both Kuomintang and Communists Chinese troops.
According to Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Emperor Hirohito signed orders specifying the use of chemical weapons in China. For example, during the Battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions, despite Article 23 of the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) and article V of the Treaty in Relation to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare A resolution adopted by the League of Nations on May 14 condemned the use of poison gas by Japan.
Another example is the Battle of Yichang in October 1941, during which the 19th Artillery Regiment helped the 13th Brigade of the IJA 11th Army by launching 1,000 yellow gas shells and 1,500 red gas shells at the Chinese forces. The area was crowded with Chinese civilians unable to evacuate. Some 3,000 Chinese soldiers were in the area and 1,600 were affected. The Japanese report stated that “the effect of gas seems considerable”.
In 2004, Yoshimi and Yuki Tanaka discovered in the Australian National Archives documents showing that cyanide gas was tested on Australian and Dutch prisoners in November 1944 on Kai Islands (Indonesia).
Torture of prisoners of war
Japanese imperial forces employed widespread use of torture on prisoners, usually in an effort to gather military intelligence quickly. Tortured prisoners were often later executed. A former Japanese Army officer who served in China, Uno Shintaro, stated:
- The major means of getting intelligence was to extract information by interrogating prisoners. Torture was an unavoidable necessity. Murdering and burying them follows naturally. You do it so you won’t be found out. I believed and acted this way because I was convinced of what I was doing. We carried out our duty as instructed by our masters. We did it for the sake of our country. From our filial obligation to our ancestors. On the battlefield, we never really considered the Chinese humans. When you’re winning, the losers look really miserable. We concluded that the Yamato [i.e., Japanese] race was superior.
Many written reports and testimonies collected by the Australian War Crimes Section of the Tokyo tribunal, and investigated by prosecutor William Webb (the future Judge-in-Chief), indicate that Japanese personnel in many parts of Asia and the Pacific committed acts of cannibalism against Allied prisoners of war. In many cases this was inspired by ever-increasing Allied attacks on Japanese supply lines, and the death and illness of Japanese personnel as a result of hunger. However, according to historian Yuki Tanaka: “cannibalism was often a systematic activity conducted by whole squads and under the command of officers”. This frequently involved murder for the purpose of securing bodies. For example, an Indian POW, Havildar Changdi Ram, testified that: “[on November 12, 1944] the Kempeitai beheaded [an Allied] pilot. I saw this from behind a tree and watched some of the Japanese cut flesh from his arms, legs, hips, buttocks and carry it off to their quarters… They cut it [into] small pieces and fried it.”
- the Japanese started selecting prisoners and every day one prisoner was taken out and killed and eaten by the soldiers. I personally saw this happen and about 100 prisoners were eaten at this place by the Japanese. The remainder of us were taken to another spot 50 miles [80 km] away where 10 prisoners died of sickness. At this place, the Japanese again started selecting prisoners to eat. Those selected were taken to a hut where their flesh was cut from their bodies while they were alive and they were thrown into a ditch where they later died.
Perhaps the most senior officer convicted of cannibalism was Lt Gen. Yoshio Tachibana (立花芳夫,Tachibana Yoshio), who with 11 other Japanese personnel was tried in August 1946 in relation to the execution of U.S. Navy airmen, and the cannibalism of at least one of them, during August 1944, on Chichi Jima, in the Bonin Islands. The airmen were beheaded on Tachibana’s orders. As military and international law did not specifically deal with cannibalism, they were tried for murder and “prevention of honorable burial”. Tachibana was sentenced to death, and hanged.
The Japanese military’s use of forced labor, by Asian civilians and POWs also caused many deaths. According to a joint study by historians including Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyoshi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the Kōa-in (Japanese Asia Development Board) for forced labour. More than 100,000 civilians and POWs died in the construction of the Burma-Siam Railway.
The U.S. Library of Congress estimates that in Java, between four and 10 million romusha (Japanese: “manual laborer”), were forced to work by the Japanese military. About 270,000 of these Javanese laborers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia. Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%.
According to historian Akira Fujiwara, Emperor Hirohito personally ratified the decision to remove the constraints of international law (Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907)) on the treatment of Chinese prisoners of war in the directive of August 5, 1937. This notification also advised staff officers to stop using the term “prisoners of war”. The Geneva Convention exempted POWs of sergeant rank or higher from manual labour, and stipulated that prisoners performing work should be provided with extra rations and other essentials. However, Japan was not a signatory to the Geneva Convention at the time, and Japanese forces did not follow the convention.
The terms “comfort women” (慰安婦, ianfu?) or “military comfort women” (従軍慰安婦, jûgun-ianfu?) are euphemisms for women in Japanese military brothels in occupied countries, most of whom were recruited by deception, abducted, or forced into prostitution, and regard themselves as having been sexually assaulted or sex slaves.
In 1992, historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi published material based on his research in archives at Japan’s National Institute for Defense Studies. Yoshimi claimed that there was a direct link between imperial institutions such as the Kôa-in and “comfort stations”. When Yoshimi’s findings were published in the Japanese news media on January 12, 1993, they caused a sensation and forced the government, represented by Chief Cabinet Secretary Kato Koichi, to acknowledge some of the facts that same day. On January 17, Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa presented formal apologies for the suffering of the victims, during a trip in South Korea. On July 6 and August 4, the Japanese government issued two statements by which it recognized that “Comfort stations were operated in response to the request of the military of the day”, “The Japanese military was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women” and that the women were “recruited in many cases against their own will through coaxing and coercion”.
The controversy was re-ignited on March 1, 2007, when Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe mentioned suggestions that a U.S. House of Representatives committee would call on the Japanese Government to “apologize for and acknowledge” the role of the Japanese Imperial military in wartime sex slavery. However, Abe denied that it applied to comfort stations. “There is no evidence to prove there was coercion, nothing to support it.” Abe’s comments provoked negative reactions overseas. For example, a New York Times editorial on March 6 said:
These were not commercial brothels. Force, explicit and implicit, was used in recruiting these women. What went on in them was serial rape, not prostitution. The Japanese Army’s involvement is documented in the government’s own defense files. A senior Tokyo official more or less apologized for this horrific crime in 1993… Yesterday, he grudgingly acknowledged the 1993 quasi apology, but only as part of a pre-emptive declaration that his government would reject the call, now pending in the United States Congress, for an official apology. America isn’t the only country interested in seeing Japan belatedly accept full responsibility. Korea, China, and the Philippines are also infuriated by years of Japanese equivocations over the issue.
The same day, veteran soldier Yasuji Kaneko admitted to The Washington Post that the women “cried out, but it didn’t matter to us whether the women lived or died. We were the emperor’s soldiers. Whether in military brothels or in the villages, we raped without reluctance.”
On April 17, 2007, Yoshimi and another historian, Hirofumi Hayashi, announced the discovery, in the archives of the Tokyo Trials, of seven official documents suggesting that Imperial military forces, such as the Tokeitai (naval secret police), directly coerced women to work in frontline brothels in China, Indochina and Indonesia. These documents were initially made public at the war crimes trial. In one of these, a lieutenant is quoted as confessing having organized a brothel and having used it himself. Another source refers to Tokeitai members having arrested women on the streets, and after enforced medical examinations, putting them in brothels.
On May 12, 2007, journalist Taichiro Kaijimura announced the discovery of 30 Netherland government documents submitted to the Tokyo tribunal as evidence of a forced massed prostitution incident in 1944 in Magelang.
A Dutch-Indonesian “comfort woman”, Jan Ruff-O’Hearn (now resident in Australia), who gave evidence to the U.S. committee, said the Japanese Government had failed to take responsibility for its crimes, that it did not want to pay compensation to victims and that it wanted to rewrite history. Ruff-O’Hearn said that she had been raped “day and night” for three months by Japanese soldiers when she was 19.
To this day, only one Japanese woman published her testimony. This was done in 1971, when a former “comfort woman” forced to work for showa soldiers in Taiwan, published her memoirs under the pseudonym of Suzuko Shirota.
There are different theories on the breakdown of the comfort women’s place of origin. While some Japanese sources claim that the majority of the women were from Japan, others, including Yoshimi, argue as many as 200,000 women, mostly from Korea and China, and some other countries such as the Philippines, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Netherlands, and Australia were forced to engage in sexual activity.
On 26 June 2007, the U.S. House of representatives Foreign Affairs Committee passed a resolution asking that Japan “should acknowledge, apologize and accept historical responsibility in a clear and unequivocal manner for its military’s coercion of women into sexual slavery during the war”. On 30 July 2007, the House of Representatives passed the resolution, while Shinzo Abe said this decision was “regrettable”.
Many historians state that the Japanese government and individual military personnel engaged in widespread looting during the period of 1895 to 1945. The stolen property included private land, as well as many different kinds of valuable goods looted from banks, depositories, temples, churches, other commercial premises, mosques, museums and private homes.
Sterling and Peggy Seagrave, in their 2003 book Gold Warriors: America’s secret recovery of Yamashita’s gold—report that secret repositories of loot from across Southeast Asia, were created by the Japanese military in the Philippines during 1942–45. They allege that the theft was organized on a massive scale, either by yakuza gangsters such as Yoshio Kodama, or by officials at the behest of Emperor Hirohito, who wanted to ensure that as many of the proceeds as possible went to the government. The Seagraves also allege that Hirohito appointed his brother, Prince Chichibu, to head a secret organisation called Kin no yuri (Golden Lily) for this purpose.”
In conclusion, we can see Japan was a bloodthirsty enemy who believed raping women was their right, eating human flesh of enemies was no different than eating an animal, murdered more people than Hitler’s German forces and were gunning for America. I would have nuked them again and again if I were Truman, if it meant preventing these things from having a chance to enter my country.
If you were the USA, what would you have done?
List of major massacres
- ^ Chapel, Joseph (2004). “Denial of the Holocaust and the Rape of Nanking”. http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/133p/133p04papers/JChapelNanjing046.htm.
- ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (March 7, 1999). “The World: Revisiting World War II Atrocities; Comparing the Unspeakable to the Unthinkable”. The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B05E6DB153FF934A35750C0A96F958260&sec=&spon=&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- ^ “http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/in_depth/39166.stm”. BBC News Online. December 13, 1997. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/in_depth/39166.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- ^ Sanger, David (October 22, 1992). “Japanese Edgy Over Emperor’s Visit to China”. The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE1D81439F931A15753C1A964958260. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- ^ “Japanese War Criminals World War Two”. The National Archives (U.K.). http://yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk/index.php?title=Japanese_War_Criminals_World_War_Two.
- ^ “Japanese War Crimes”. The National Archives (U.S.). http://www.archives.gov/iwg/japanese-war-crimes/.
- ^ “Pacific Theater Document Archive”. War Crimes Studies Center, University of California, Berkeley. http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~warcrime/PT.htm.
- ^ Kafala, Tarik (October 21, 2009). “What is a war crime?”. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1420133.stm.
- ^ “Bibliography: War Crimes”. Sigur Center for Asian Studies, George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~memory/research/bibliography/warcrimes.html.
- ^ a b c Tabuchi, Hiroko. “Japan’s Abe: No Proof of WWII Sex Slaves”. Washington Post (The Associated Press). http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030100578.html. Retrieved March 1, 2007
- ^ “Historical Issues Q&A”. Foreign Policy. Tokyo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan). January 2006. http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/q_a/faq16.htm. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- ^ Kasahara, Tokushi. “Reconciling Narratives of the Nanjing Massacre in Japanese and Chinese Textbooks”. Tsuru Bunka University. http://www.usip.org/events/2007/kasahara.pdf.
- ^ a b “Japan’s Abe Denies Proof of World War II Sex Slaves”. New York Times (Associated Press). March 1, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/world/AP-Japan-Sex-Slaves.html?ref=world. Retrieved March 1, 2007
- ^ China Weekly Review October 22, 1938
- ^ Nuremberg Tribunal (October 1, 1946). “Judgment: The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity”. Yale Law School. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/proc/judlawre.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- ^ See, for example: Wai Keng Kwok, 2001, “Justice Done? Criminal and Moral Responsibility Issues In the Chinese Massacres Trial Singapore, 1947″ (Genocide Studies Program Working Paper No. 18, Yale University), p. 27. Access date: April 23, 2007.
- ^ a b Chang, Maria Hsia; Barker, Robert P. (2003). “Victor’s Justice and Japan’s Amnesia”. In Peter, Li. Japanese War Crimes: The Search for Justice. Transaction Publishers. pp. 44. ISBN 0765808900.
- ^ Lippman, Matthew (January 1, 2004). “The history, development, and decline of crimes against peace”. George Washington International Law Review 36 (5): 25. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5433/is_200401/ai_n21362456/pg_1?tag=artBody;col1. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- ^ “Under Japanese law, 14 at Yasukuni not criminals: Abe”. The Japan Times. October 7, 2006. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20061007a4.html. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- ^ a b See, for example, Yutaka Kawasaki, “Was the 1910 Annexation Treaty Between Korea and Japan Concluded Legally?” Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, v.3, no. 2 (July 1996) Access date: February 15, 2007.
- ^ See, for example: Craig Symonds, “War, Politics, and Grand Strategy in the Pacific, 1941-1945″, Air University Review, November-December 1979 (Access date: February 15, 2007): “most American historians, date the war from December 1941″. See also Edward Drea, “Introduction”, in Edward Drea, Greg Bradsher, Robert Hanyok, James Lide, Michael Petersen & Daqing Yang, 2006, Researching Japanese War Crimes Records (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington D.C.; p. 15): “The atrocities at Nanjing occurred four years before the United States entered the war. At that time, the U.S. government did not have a large military or diplomatic intelligence network in China. A handful of trained military or embassy personnel reported on events, sometimes second-hand; compared with the sensational press coverage, the official U.S. documentation was scant. As a result, with the exception of the records produced during the postwar Class A war crimes trial of the commanding general of Japanese forces deemed responsible for the Rape of Nanking, there are few materials on this subject at the National Archives.” See also, Ben-Ami Shillony, “Book Review, Book Title: A History of Japan, 1582-1941 Internal and External Worlds, Author: L. M. Cullen Professor of History, Trinity College, Dublin”, (Institute of Historical Research, February 2004) (Access date: February 15, 2007); Grant K. Goodman, “Review ‘The Kempei Tai in the Philippines: 1941-1945′ by Ma. Felisa A. Syjuco” Pacific Affairs, v. 64, no. 2 (Summer, 1991), pp. 282-283 (Access date: February 15, 2007); United Nations Human Rights Committee, “Fifty-Ninth Session, 24 March – 11 April 1997, Decisions, Communication No. 601/1994″ (April 3, 1997) (Access date: February 15, 2007);Gary K. Reynolds, 2002, U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan(Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress, December 17, 2002) Access date: February 15, 2007.
- ^ de Jong, Louis (2002). The collapse of a colonial society. The Dutch in Indonesia during the Second World War. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 206. translation J. Kilian, C. Kist and J. Rudge, introduction J. Kemperman. Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press. pp. 40, 42, 45, 203–204, 305–307, 311–312, 328, 373–374, 386, 391, 393, 429, 488. ISBN 90 6718 203 6.
- ^ http://www.cicr.org/ihl.nsf/WebSign?ReadForm&id=305&ps=P
- ^ a b Tanaka Hidden Horrors pp72-73
- ^ “German-POW camp reveals little-known history of Japan”. Kyodo News. January 31, 2000. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0XPQ/is_/ai_59198009. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
- ^ “Japanese POW camp was a little slice of home”. Agence France-Presse. March 23, 2004. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/feat/archives/2004/03/23/2003107480. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
- ^ Lamong-Brown, Raymond. “Kempeitai: Japan’s Dreaded Military Police”. Sutton Publishing, 1998.
- ^ a b John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945 p 301 Random House New York 1970
- ^ de Jong, Louis (2002) . The collapse of a colonial society. The Dutch in Indonesia during the Second World War. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 206. translation J. Kilian, C. Kist and J. Rudge, introduction J. Kemperman. Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press. pp. 289 311 417. ISBN 90 6718 203 6.
- ^ Johnson, Looting of Asia
- ^ Tanaka Hidden Horrors pp2-3
- ^ Akira Fujiwara, Nitchû Sensô ni Okeru Horyo Gyakusatsu, Kikan Sensô Sekinin Kenkyû 9, 1995, p.22
- ^ Tanaka, ibid., Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.360
- ^ Blundell, Nigel (November 3, 2007). “Alive and safe, the brutal Japanese soldiers who butchered 20,000 Allied seamen in cold blood”. Mail Online (Associated Newspapers Ltd.). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-491548/Alive-safe-brutal-Japanese-soldiers-butchered-20-000-Allied-seamen-cold-blood.html.
- ^ Rummell, Statistics
- ^ China’s Bloody Century
- ^ Chang, p. 102
- ^ Schmidt 1982, p. 36.
- ^ Ramsey 1990, pp. 329–330.
- ^ Transcript of the interview with Lee Yuan Kew
- ^ Japanese Treatment of Chinese Prisoners, 1931-1945, Hayashi Hirofumi
- ^ a b L, Klemen (1999-2000). “The Carnage at Laha, February 1942″. Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/laha_massacre.html.
- ^ a b L, Klemen (1999-2000). “The Bangka Island Massacre, February 1942″. Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942. http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/bangka_massacre.html.
- ^ “Unmasking Horror” Nicholas D. Kristof (March 17, 1995) New York Times. A special report.; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity
- ^ Byrd, Gregory Dean, General Ishii Shiro: His Legacy is that of a Genius and Madman, p. ? (PDF document)
- ^ GlobalSecurity.org, 2005 “Biological Weapons Program”. Downloaded November 26, 2006
- ^ Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague upon Humanity, 2004, p.xii, 173.
- ^ Christopher Hudson (2 March 2007). “Doctors of Depravity”. Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=439776&in_page_id=1770.
- ^ “Japan digs site linked to WWII human experiments”. Associated Press. February 21, 2011. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5h3lTfl-FdP2-EL6-idmKw7lMj0DA?docId=7e79d2c878904307b24a15bfb3b8d8c5.
- ^ David McNeill (February 22, 2011). “Japan confronts truth about its germ warfare tests on prisoners of war”. The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/japan-confronts-truth-about-its-germ-warfare-tests-on-prisoners-of-war-2221715.html.
- ^ “pacificwrecks.com”. http://www.pacificwrecks.com/people/visitors/moskow/face.html.
- ^ The Denver Post, June 1, 1995, cited by Gary K. Reynolds, 2002, “U.S. Prisoners of War and Civilian American Citizens Captured and Interned by Japan in World War II: The Issue of Compensation by Japan” (Library of Congress)
- ^ Landas, Marc The Fallen A True Story of American POWs and Japanese Wartime Atrocities Hoboken John Wiley 2004 ISBN 0471421197
- ^ http://home.comcast.net/~winjerd/Page05.htm
- ^ Landas p.255
- ^ Unit 731 Testimony [Paperback] Hal Gold, April 2004 ISBN 0804835659
- ^ BBC “Japanese doctor admits POW abuse” Downloaded November 26, 2006, 12:52 GMT
- ^ Kyodo News Agency, “Ex-navy officer admits to vivisection of war prisoners in Philippines,” reported in Yahoo! Asia News: 
- ^ Vivisectionist recalls his day of reckoning”. Japan Times. 2007-10-24. p. 3.
- ^ Yuki Tanaka, Poison Gas, the Story Japan Would Like to Forget, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, October 1988, p. 16-17
- ^ Yoshimi and Matsuno, Dokugasusen kankei shiryô II, Kaisetsu 1997
- ^ “Washington Treaty in Relation to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare”. http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Washington_Treaty_in_Relation_to_the_Use_of_Submarines_and_Noxious_Gases_in_Warfare.
- ^ Yuki Tanaka, Poison Gas, the Story Japan Would Like to Forget, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, October 1988, p.17
- ^ Japan tested chemical weapons on Aussie POW: new evidence, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/member/nn20040727a9.html
- ^ de Jong, Louis (2002) . The collapse of a colonial society. The Dutch in Indonesia during the Second World War. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 206. translation J. Kilian, C. Kist and J. Rudge, introduction J. Kemperman. Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press. pp. 167 170–173 181–184 196 204–225 309–314 323–325 337–338 341 343 345–346 380 407. ISBN 90 6718 203 6.
- ^ Haruko Taya Cook & Theodore F. Cook, Japan at War 1993 ISBN 1-56584-039-9, p. 153
- ^ Tanaka Hidden Horrors p127
- ^ Lord Russell of Liverpool (Edward Russell), The Knights of Bushido, a short history of Japanese War Crimes, Greenhill books, 2002, p.236.
- ^ Lord Russell of Liverpool (Edward Russell), The Knights of Bushido, a short history of Japanese War Crimes, Greenhill books, 2002, p.121.
- ^ ”Case No. 21 Trial Of General Tomoyuki Yamashita[,] United States Military Commission, Manila, (8 October-7 December, 1945), and the Supreme Court Of The United States (Judgments Delivered On 4 February, 1946). Part VI (Retrieved on December 18, 2006); Jeanie M. Welch, “Without a Hangman, Without a Rope: Navy War Crimes Trials After World War II”, International Journal of Naval History, v.1, No. 1, April 2002, p.5-6
- ^ Zhifen Ju, Japan’s atrocities of conscripting and abusing north China draftees after the outbreak of the pacific war, 2002
- ^ links for research, Allied POWs under the Japanese
- ^ Library of Congress, 1992, “Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942-50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942-45″ Access date: February 9, 2007.
- ^ Fujiwara, Nitchû sensô ni okeru horyo gyakusatsu, 1995
- ^ CNN.com – Japanese comfort women ruling overturned – March 29, 2001
- ^ Yoshiaki Yoshimi, 2001-02, Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military during World War II. Columbia University Press
- ^ Washington Post, “Japan’s Abe: no proof of WWII sex slaves”
- ^ New York Times, “No comfort”, March 6, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/06/opinion/06tues3.html, accessed March 8, 2007
- ^ Washington Post, Ibid.
- ^ Evidence documenting sex-slave coercion revealed
- ^ Files: Females forced into sexual servitude in wartime Indonesia http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070512a6.html
- ^ East Timor former sex slaves speak out http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070428f1.html
- ^ Todd Cardy, 2007, “Japanese PM’s denial upsets ‘comfort woman’” (News.com.au; March 5, 2007). Access date: March 7, 2007)
- ^ China Daily. Memoir of comfort woman tells of ‘hell for women’
- ^ http://archives.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/asiapcf/east/03/29/japan.comfort.women/index.htm & http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/10/15/congress_backs_off_of_wartime_japan_rebuke/
- ^ Comfort Women Were ‘Raped’: U.S. Ambassador to Japan
- ^ Abe ignores evidence, say Australia’s ‘comfort women’
- ^ Yoshimi, ibid., http://hnn.us/articles/printfriendly/9954.html, http://www.jpri.org/publications/workingpapers/wp77.html and http://hnn.us/articles/13533.html http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=10155
- ^ U.S. Panel OKs sex slave resolution, http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070628a1.html
- ^ U.S. House passes sex slave resolution | The Japan Times Online
- ^ Kenneth B. Lee, 1997, Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group
- ^ Sterling & Peggy Seagrave, 2003, Gold warriors: America’s secret recovery of Yamashita’s gold, London: Verso Books (ISBN 1-85984-542-8)
- ^ Chalmers Johnson “The Looting of Asia” (London Review of Books, v. 25 no. 22, November 20, 2003)
- ^ Takashi Yoshida, 2006, The Making of the “Rape of Nanking”: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States, New York: Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-518096-8).