In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. The Acts became known as the Clarendon Code, after Lord Clarendon, even though he was not directly responsible for them and even spoke against the Five Mile Act.[33]. 117 There were several bills in favour of Dissenters, to which the Lords were more sympathetic. Having lost the support of Parliament, Danby resigned his post of Lord High Treasurer, but received a pardon from the king. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). 2 For example, Tanner, J. R., English Constitutional Conflicts of the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1928), esp. [68] Protestant politicians such as the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, Lord Russell and the Duke of Monmouth were implicated in the plot. Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country. Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, he formally agreed to the Covenant; his abandonment of Episcopal church governance, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England. 53 Diary of John Milward, pp. "newCiteModal": false, He became known as the merry monarch. (3 vols., Camden Soc., 1884– 1885), III, 131 (Lauderdale)Google Scholar; Essex Papers, ed. And never did a wise one"[35], To which Charles is reputed to have replied "that the matter was easily accounted for: For that his discourse was his own, his actions were the ministry's". 44 It was still functioning in March 1671 (C.J., IX, 219). and Barrillon to Louis XIV, 2 Dec. 1680 (n.s.) 340––7, 741–5 and passimGoogle Scholar. 107 Sidney, H., Diary of the Times of Charles II, ed. To save Danby from the impeachment trial, Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament in January 1679. "openAccess": "0", Find the perfect charles i parliament stock photo. Whig Thought and the Revolution of 1688–91. [69] Titus Oates was convicted and imprisoned for defamation. The 55 Marvell, , Poems and Letters, II, 2Google Scholar. 72 Grey, , Debates, III, 87, 214–15Google Scholar; IV, 126; V, 75, 247. It was the longest English Parliament, enduring for nearly 18 years of the quarter-century reign of Charles II of England.Like its predecessor, the Convention Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and is also known as the Pensioner Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain, France and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, Edinburgh,[9] but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland. 540–1. 99–100; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 100, 102Google Scholar. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. [20] Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. Traditional celebrations involved the wearing of oak leaves but these have now died out. As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. While Danby seems to have been rightly sceptical about Oates's claims, the Cavalier Parliament took them seriously. The Scots rebelled, assembled a huge army, and threatened to invade England. Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. 82 Ibid. 145 While there was much talk of the need for frequent parliaments, no bill was brought in to curtail the kings power to summon and dismiss them at will (see C.J., IX, 682). The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. 568. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. The present Dukes of Buccleuch, Richmond, Grafton and St Albans descend from Charles in unbroken male line. 56 S.R, V, 621, 635; Diary of John Milward, p. 210; C.J., IX, 73. )", "Charles II, 1672: An Act for preventing Dangers which may happen from Popish Recusants", "Charles II, 1678: (Stat. [73] Charles had a laboratory among his many interests, where prior to his illness he had been experimenting with mercury. 96 Grey, , Debates, II, 235Google Scholar; III, 295, 341–6; Dering, , Diaries and Papers, pp. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. The brief diaries in H.M.C., Beaufort, pp. Their first son was born about a year before Charles, but died within a day. Charles promised to abide by the laws of Parliament. Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. [64], Charles faced a political storm over his brother James, a Catholic, being next in line to the throne. 8 Grey, , Debates, VII, 407Google Scholar. Bond, M. (London, 1976)Google Scholar. • 16 December 1653. (P.R.O., Baschct, 130, 132). 24, 1679), the first English Parliament after the Restoration of Charles II to the throne. He even became a Catholic in order to help end a war with the Dutch. 260–1. In: Harris, T., & Taylor, S. Airy, O. and Pike, C. E. 2 vols., Camden Soc., 1890, 1913), I, 130Google Scholar and SirDairymple, J., Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland) 2 vols., London, 1771– 1773), II, Appendix, p. 272 (York)Google Scholar. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, in 1660: By Barbara Villiers (1641–1709), wife of Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine and created Duchess of Cleveland in her own right: By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kérouaille (1649–1734), created Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1673): By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute:[96], Letters claiming that Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries. ; Bodleian Library, Oxford, Carte MS 35, fo. 139 Hyde claimed they were doing so (Grey, , Debates, VIII, 265, 271)Google Scholar. 1 Macaulay, T. B., History of England, ed. But some things had changed. 69 Grey, , Debates, II, 245–6, 307, 382Google Scholar. 118 Ibid., IX, 680, 685. 1687 Fora direct criticism of Charles, see H.M.C., Beaufort, p. 109Google Scholar. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his cousin King Louis XIV of France. The later entries are fuller and appear accurate. 2.) Charles reluctantly promised that he would abide by the terms of a treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament at Breda, and support the Solemn League and Covenant, which authorised Presbyterian church governance across Britain. p. 241Google Scholar; Hill, C., Century of Revolution (Edinburgh, 1961), p. 228CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Charles II died in February and James II's Parliament first met in May, but after November was continuously prorogued until it was dissolved in July 1687. To lay foundations for a new beginning, envoys of the States General appeared in November 1660 with the Dutch Gift. The much fuller An exact Collection of the Debates of the House of Commons held at Westminster, October 21 1680 (London, for Baldwin, R., 1689)Google Scholar differs considerably from Grey, but there are many similarities and internal evidence would suggest that it is substantially accurate. In addi-tion, in 1637, Charles tried to force the Presbyterian Scots to accept a version of the Anglican prayer book. [25], In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. [15] Charles could not obtain sufficient finance or support to mount a serious challenge to Cromwell's government. [47] Clarendon fled to France when impeached for high treason (which carried the penalty of death). Fanned by a strong easterly wind and fed by stockpiles of wood and fuel that had been prepared for the coming colder months, the fire eventually consumed about 13,200 houses and 87 churches, including St Paul's Cathedral. Charles's wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir; her four pregnancies had ended in miscarriages and stillbirths in 1662, February 1666, May 1668 and June 1669. View all Google Scholar citations He was most famous for the private diary he kept between 1660-1669, offering eyewitness accounts of the Great Fire of London, the Plague, and other major events, as well as some pretty juicy information about his own sexual affairs, his … Theatre licences granted by Charles required that female parts be played by "their natural performers", rather than by boys as was often the practice before;[34] and Restoration literature celebrated or reacted to the restored court, which included libertines such as John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the battle of Worcester. Ralph Montagu wentinto opposition only after losing office. "metrics": true, [75], On his deathbed Charles asked his brother, James, to look after his mistresses: "be well to Portsmouth, and let not poor Nelly starve". Louis XIV replied that he was willing to help England but in return he demanded that Charles become a Catholic. "[90] The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. Charles himself soon came to despise the "villainy" and "hypocrisy" of the Covenanters. England was enjoying peace while other European countries were at war; her seamen were building an Empire; the arts and sciences were in robust health. "clr": true, Charles is forced to flee abroad. Despite the Stuart family connections through Henrietta Maria and the Princess of Orange, France and the Dutch Republic allied themselves with Cromwell's government from 1654, forcing Charles to leave France and turn for aid to Spain, which at that time ruled the Southern Netherlands. When the Convention Parliament met in March 1660 there was still some doubt about what action it would take to settle the country, and what influence the army under General Monck would have. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested.[2]. Under Charles II and his brother, who succeeded him as James II in 1685, the ‘normal’ relationship between kings and Parliaments was, in theory, restored. 39 Bryant, A., Samuel Pepys, the years of Peril (London, 1948), pp. 58 Croissy to Louis XIV, 15 (recte 14) Dec. 1673 (n.s.) He was relaxed and good natured, well mannered and courteous, and he felt no need to posture. 17 Grey, , Debates, III, 127Google Scholar; Dering, , Diaries and Papers, p. 175Google Scholar. [3] At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. 38 B.L., Egerton MS 2539, fo. The commission was specifically ordered to investigate Carteret (C.J., IX, 87). 32 H.M.C., Healhcote, p. 84Google Scholar; Bodleian Library, Carte MS 47, fos. Cavalier Parliament, (May 8, 1661—Jan. } 91 Grey, , Debates, III, 451Google Scholar; IV, 106–12, 184–6. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the King had no right … Charles II’s reign was marked by two tragic events in British history - the Great Plague of London and the Great Fire of London. In their talks, Henrietta told Louis XIV that Charles II wanted England and France to become allies. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. 95 C.J., VIII, 659–61; IX, 412; Grey, , Debates, III, 450–9; IV, 182–7, 341–2; VI, 50–3Google Scholar. [26] In the end nine of the regicides were executed:[27] they were hanged, drawn and quartered; others were given life imprisonment or simply excluded from office for life. [22], The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons that was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians. Charleston, South Carolina, and South Kingstown, Rhode Island, are named after him. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. The public blamed Catholic conspirators for the fire,[41] and one Frenchman, Robert Hubert, was hanged on the basis of a false confession even though he had no hand in starting the fire. [f] The Second Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda. [76] He told his courtiers, "I am sorry, gentlemen, for being such a time a-dying",[77] and expressed regret at his treatment of his wife. 62 Roberts, C., The Growth of Responsible Government in Stuart England (Cambridge, 1966), esp. He died in the Roman Catholic faith. [16], Charles made the Treaty of Brussels with Spain in 1656. "peerReview": true, 338–40, 343–9, 35–5. 45, 397. Published online by Cambridge University Press:  42 Marvell, , Poems and Letters, II, 314Google Scholar; C.J., IX, 121, 124–6, 128, 136, 141; Grey, , Debates I, 233–6Google Scholar; Croissy to Louis XIV, 27 Feb. 1670 (n.s. Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. [43] Catherine journeyed from Portugal to Portsmouth on 13–14 May 1662,[43] but was not visited by Charles there until 20 May. 157, 176, 192. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. Although he had failed to beget a legitimate heir, he left a near-absolute, solvent monarchy. Finch, II, 52Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. 9 Grey, , Debates, II, 68Google Scholar; Roberts, C., ‘Sir Richard Temple, the Pickthank Undertaker’, Huntington Library Quarterly, xli (1977– 1988), 137–55Google Scholar. Margoliouth, H. M. (3rd edn., 2 vols., Oxford, 1971), II, 1–2, 44Google Scholar. Puritanism lost its momentum. A great fire, however, destroyed Charles's lodgings at Newmarket, which forced him to leave the races early, thus inadvertently avoiding the planned attack. [30], The Convention Parliament was dissolved in December 1660, and, shortly after the coronation, the second English Parliament of the reign assembled. "comments": true, For the importance of court faction in the parliamentary attacks on individuals, see Clarendon, , Life, II, 474–5 (Sandwich)Google Scholar; Croissy to Louis XIV, 3 Feb. 1670 (n.s. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. 24 Reresby, , Memoirs, p. 112Google Scholar; SirTemple, W., Memoirs, 1675–9 (London, 1692), p. 277Google Scholar; Cal. 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