In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface.[32]. [8][9][10][11][12] The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change *s > h, which occurred between 850 and 600 BCE according to Asko Parpola. km and a total length of 2,880 km (in India 1,114 km). It is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, and most often used in the generic sense of "river". [4] Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of India[a] towards Gilgit-Baltistan, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. 2. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the South of Thatta in the Sindh province of Pakistan, The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore. Over 47% of the total area of the Indus drainage basin is in Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Per Article I of IWT, any river/ tributary and its catchment area of Indus System of Rivers which are not part of other five rivers, is part of Indus river including its creeks , delta channels , connecting lakes, etc. In the uppermost, highest part of the Indus River basin there are relatively few genera and species: Diptychus, Ptychobarbus, Schizopyge, Schizopygopsis and Schizothorax snowtrout, Triplophysa loaches, and the catfish Glyptosternon reticulatum. Here, the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. The Indus River System 2. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. [40][41] Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. Save ", U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke said, shortly before his death in 2010, that he believed that falling water levels in the Indus River "could very well precipitate World War III. Partly frozen river Indus 7. The Indus acts as the main source of water supply for Pakistan. [42], The ethnicities of the Indus Valley (Pakistan and Northwest India) have a greater amount of ANI (or West Eurasian) admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west. [36] Many of the species of the middle sections of the Indus basin are also present in the lower. Himalayan Rivers existed even before the formation of Himalayas (Antecedent Drainage) They were flowing into the Tethys Sea. Latest Updates. The Induan Age at start of the Triassic Period of geological time is named for the Indus region. The width of flow of the river is determined by the seasonal changes, i.e. 3. Indus River System. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres (15,000–17,000 feet) deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The glaciers act as natural reservoirs that provide perennial supplies to the Indus and some of its tributaries. Since the 1940s, dams, barrages and irrigation works have been constructed on the river Indus. It is the largest river in the world in terms of water flow. Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, and the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. "But we need to be concerned about that. It follows a north-westerly course through Tibet. [3] It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. It is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot. It forms a picturesque gorge in this part. 1. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh, India, and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. "[54], Over the years factories on the banks of the Indus River have increased levels of water pollution in the river and the atmosphere around it. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Yangtze is the only river contributing more plastic. [35], The Indus River basin has a high diversity, being the home of more than 180 freshwater fish species,[36] including 22 which are found nowhere else. The smooth-coated otters in the Indus River represent a subspecies found nowhere else, the Sindh otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica). There are several other tributaries nearby, which may possibly form a longer stream than Sênggê Kanbab, but unlike the Sênggê Kanbab, are all dependent on snowmelt. The Indus river system consists of glaciers and snows as it has tributaries that flow through the glaciers of Himalayas, Karakoram ranges and the Hindu Kush mountain ranges. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned. For the Bronze Age civilisation, see, "Indus" and "Sindhu" redirect here. Indus River system Question:- Write about the Indus river system. The Indus Basin Irrigation System is the "largest contiguous irrigation system developed over the past 140 years" anywhere in the world. The Himalayan Rivers existed even before the formation of Himalayas i.e. In India, the basin spreads over states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. The river has developed antecedent drainage in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. As a result, damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Under Clause 13 of the WAA ’91, the need to establish an Indus River System Authority was recognized and accepted for the implementation of the Accord. Flowing West, it enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu & Kashmir. Mcq Added by: Jack Sparrow. The indus river system 1. The Indus Valley System. The Indus river system forms a link between two large natural reservoirs, the snow and glaciers in the mountains and the groundwater contained by the alluvium in the Indus plains of the Sindh and Punjab Provinces of Pakistan (Ojeh, 2006). It originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu (31°15’ N latitude and 81°40’ E longitude) in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range. It also serves as the main source of drinking water for the people of this region. River Indus snaking through Ladakh in Indian-administered Kashmir (Shutterstock) The affluent waters of the Indus system of rivers begin primarily in Tibet and the Himalayan mountains in the states of Himachal Pradesh in India and the disputed territories of Jammu and Kashmir. to enroll in courses, follow best educators, interact with the community and track your progress. The Indus Originates in the Tibetan Plateau and flows through three Asian Countries, that are India, China and Pakistan. The first two join the Indus soon after it leaves the mountains, and the others lower down in the plains. To the Indus people, their river was ‘The King River’. Due to the success of their water systems and overall sanitation, the population of the Indus valley grew. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic world, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. The Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade Sindh and Punjab, providing a gateway to the Indian subcontinent. The Indus arises from the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar. The Indus script has a commonly used fish sign, which in its various forms may simply have meant "fish", or referred to stars or gods.[37]. [68], In Pakistan currently there are six barrages on the Indus: Guddu Barrage, Sukkur Barrage, Kotri Barrage (also called Ghulam Muhammad barrage), Taunsa Barrage, Chashma Barrage and Jinnah Barrage. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? It is home to around 25 amphibian species. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab[20] and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. Originally, the delta used to receive almost all of the water from the Indus river, which has an annual flow of approximately 180 billion cubic metres (240 billion cubic yards), and is accompanied by 400 million tonnes (390 million long tons) of silt. The River Indus has many tributaries on the left as well as on the right side. It is joined by numerous tributaries, notably those of the eastern Punjab Plain—the … The Indus River rises from the lofty mountains of Himalayas around Mansarovar Lake in Tibet at an elevation of 5,182 m. Its principal tributaries in India are the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj, all joining from left. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional water supplies for Karachi. The right bank side is also leveed from Guddu barrage to Lake Manchar. The Indus river dolphin resides in the Indus river system of Pakistan and the Ganges river dolphin in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of India, Bangladesh and Nepal. [47][48] Any further utilization of the river basin water is not economically feasible. According to the World Wildlife Fund it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing. [58], The Indus is second among a group of ten rivers responsible for about 90% of all the plastic that reaches the oceans. The Indus river, the Ganga river and the Brahmaputra river comprise the Himalayan river systems. It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except for the Brahmaputra. The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. [33] Fish also played a major role in earlier cultures of the region, including the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation where depictions of fish were frequent. The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season.The river is known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage. This lever has a total length of 2897 km and finally terminates at the Arabian Sea. [64][65], The 2011 Sindh floods began during the Pakistani monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan, and southern Punjab. [67] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh. [51], Large-scale diversion of the river's water for irrigation has raised far-reaching issues. [citation needed], Southworth suggests that the name Sindhu is derived from Cintu, a Dravidian word for date palm, a tree commonly found in Sindh. Video of River Indus at Kotri Barrage, Sindh, Pakistan. This flood system may have been the Indus Valleys greatest triumph as they had harnessed the power to control the annual floods to their advantage, without the devastating impact that came with the flourishing of crops. Its principal right-bank tributaries are the Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Kurram and Gomal rivers. Indus is an important river in Pakistan, supporting many heavy industries. It has a large number of tributaries in both India and Pakistan and has a total length of about 2897 km from the source to the point near Karachi where it falls into the Arabian Sea out of which approx 700km lies in India. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). >>>>> >>>>> Ganga River. One of the largest river basin in the world. It drains an area of 11,65,500 Sq.km. [citation needed]. River Indus Enters India In Ladakh 4. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). The Indus System of Rivers comprises three western rivers — the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab — and three eastern rivers — the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi. [23] Heavy rains had left the river basin along with the Lake Manchar, Lake Hemal and Kalri Lake (all in modern-day Pakistan) inundated. Tarbela Dam in Pakistan is constructed on the Indus River, while the controversial Kalabagh dam is also being constructed on Indus river. The Sindhu River, also commonly referred to as the Indus River, is a major waterway in South Asia. The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. In other languages of the region, the river is known as دریائے سندھ (Darya-ī Sindh) in Urdu सिन्धु (Sindhu) in Hindi, سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi, سندھ (Sindh) in Shahmukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ (Sindh Nadī) in Gurmukhī Punjabi, اباسين (Abāsin lit. Only about 1,100 of this unique species exist today in the lower parts of the Indus River in Pakistan. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the Indian states and union territories of Ladakh and Himachal Pradesh and the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. [7] Its left-bank tributary in Ladakh is the Zanskar River, and its left-bank tributary in the plains is the Panjnad River which itself has five major tributaries, namely the Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers. [23], The traditional source of the river is the Sênggê Kanbab (a.k.a. [31] The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. All the major riversof the Indus River system are snow-fed. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times – it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 km). The average annual water flow of River Indus is 243 cubic kilometres. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayan, Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, the river supports the ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. For instance, the flow is bare minimum during the winter months (December to February); there is a rise the level of water in spring and early summer (March to June), and floods are bound to happen during the rainy season (July to September). Indus River • India got her name from Indus. Together form the Himalayan river system. [39] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal – linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers – extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. It enters Indian territory in Jammu and Kashmir. This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu and the Persians as Hindu which was regarded by both of them as "the border river". [55] Death of the Indus river dolphin has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up. The important facts about the rivers are a. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. Press Release; Vacancies; Tender Notice; Contacts; Login. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country. Printable Blank India Outline Map for UPSC Preparation | How to Study India Outline Map for UPSC IAS Exam? The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). The Indus river originates from the Kailash hills in Tibet, near the Mansarovar region. [36] The lowermost part of the river and its delta are home to freshwater fish, but also a number of brackish and marine species. It is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan rivers in India. Consequently, this paper seeks to demonstrate that India and Pakistan remain interdependent in managing their Indus River system and for over 40 years, they have sustained active cooperation. Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time. Register Now. It forms a picturesque gorge in this part. | Types & Styles of Letter Writing | Letter Writing Topics, Samples & Tips, YASHADA Coaching Center Details | Yashwantrao Chavan Academy Of Development Administration for IAS Exams, Malimath Committee Report on Criminal Justice System for UPSC Exam | Key Recommendations of Malimath Committee, Improve Spoken English Without Speaking Partner, How I Corrected My Pronunciation | 6 Steps to Corrected My Pronunciation, More Than 240 Words That You Might Be Mispronouncing All Your Life, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nd-0HFd58P8. 3,249 km (2,019 mi) actual as mentioned in History Books. Notable examples of genera that are present in the lower plain but generally not elsewhere in the Indus River basin are the Aphanius pupfish, Aplocheilus killifish, palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha), catla (Labeo catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and Cirrhinus mrigala. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. A great river of South Asia, the Indus has long been a vital feature of the land that is now India and Pakistan.It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers). [72] In response to the levees construction, the river has been aggrading rapidly over the last 20 years leading to breaches upstream of barrages and inundation of large areas.[73]. The Indus Valley were later dominated by the Mauryan and Kushan Empires, Indo-Greek Kingdoms, Indo-Scythians and Hepthalites. [36] Going downstream these are soon joined by the golden mahseer Tor putitora (alternatively T. macrolepis, although it often is regarded as a synonym of T. putitora) and Schistura loaches. The Hakra river is hydraulically connected to the Nara River provided it has adequate flow to maintain surface flow. The Indus river has two main tributaries, the Kabul on the right bank and the Panjnad on the left. [26] The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus. [56][57] As a result, the government banned fishing from Guddu Barrage to Sukkur. In the Kashmir region, it joins with many tributaries – the Zaskar, the Shyok, the Nubra and the Hunza. The first West Eurasian empire to annex the Indus Valley was the Persian Empire, during the reign of Darius the Great. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to those regions immediately along the east bank of the Indus, but by 300 BC, Greek writers including Herodotus and Megasthenes were applying the term to the entire subcontinent that extends much farther eastward.[27][28]. Major Rivers of Indus River System Source Length Indus Glaciers of Kailas Range (Close to Manasarovar Lake) 2880 km total. It is subspecies of the South Asian river dolphin. The Indus river has two main tributaries, the Kabul on the right bank and the Panjnad on the left. The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed in Karachi on 19 September 1962 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistani President Ayub Khan.. It also serves as the main source of drinking water for the people of this region. The Indus System is one of the largest river basins of the world. Its estimated annual flow is around 243 km3 (58 cu mi), twice that of the Nile and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it one of the largest rivers in the world in terms of average annual flow. 11 January, 2021. Indus Waters Treaty, treaty, signed on September 19, 1960, between India and Pakistan and brokered by the World Bank. [13][14] From the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name passed to the Greeks as Indós (Ἰνδός). Origin: The Indus River originates near the Mansarovar Lake in the Tibetan plateau, on the northern slopes of the Kailash Mountain Range. It enters Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir by forming a picturesque gorge. Palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The Indus serves as a home to 180 species of freshwater fish, out of which 22 species of fishes are not found in any other river or sea. It creates the border between the Rechna (between Ravi and … It gradually bends to the south and descends into the Punjab plains at Kalabagh, Pakistan. It supports the Chashma Barrage near Dera Ismail Khan for irrigation use and flood control and the Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan which also produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. Together with its tributaries, the Indus River forms an important river system, which helps the agricultural economy of India. The Indus arises from the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the Satnad River (sat = "seven", nadī = "river"), as the river now carried the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. It flows parallely to the Pir Panjal Range. The Government of Pakistan established the Indus River System Authority in the year_____? The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar. The Indus also is known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan rivers in India. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto, نهر السند (Nahar al-Sind) in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། (singi khamban lit. Major River System – The Indus River System. The Indus water system of rivers comprises the main Indus and its major tributaries: the Kabul River and Kurram River on the right bank, and the Jhelum River, Chenab River, Ravi River, Beas River and the Sutlej on the left. The Indus river feeds the Indus submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region of South Asia, while the lower course of the river ends in a large delta in the southern Sindh province of Pakistan. IRSA Newsletter December 01 - 31st, 2020.....More. The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams. According to the data released by IRSA, water level in the Indus River at Tarbela Dam was 1460.90 feet, which was 74.90 feet higher than its dead level 1386 feet. [49][50], Vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta are threatened by the reduced inflow of fresh water, along with extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming. The Sindh Environmental Protection Agency has ordered polluting factories around the river to shut down under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997. The Government of Pakistan established the Indus River System Authority in the year_____? Indus River System D.K. The total drainage area of River Indus is approximately 11,65,000 km2. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. A great river of South Asia, the Indus has long been a vital feature of the land that is now India and Pakistan.It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers). ISLAMABAD, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News - 18th May, 2020 ) :Indus River System Authority (IRSA) Monday released 209,000 cusecs water from various rim stations with inflow of 201,300 cusecs.. Western rivers of India – the Indus river, the Chenab and the Jhelumgiven to Pakistan. • ‘The Indus Valley Civilization’ was born around this river. The population of fish in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta, and Kotri being the major fishing centres – all in the lower Sindh course. The Indus river system in Kashmir is a river system that sustains communities in both India and Pakistan. Log in, Complaint Letter Format | How to Write a Letter of Complaint? [36] In some upland lakes and tributaries of the Punjab region snowtrout and mahseer are still common, but once the Indus basin reaches its lower plain the former group is entirely absent and the latter are rare. Downriver from around Thakot, Tarbela, the Kabul–Indus river confluence, Attock Khurd and Peshawar the diversity rises strongly, including many cyprinids (Amblypharyngodon, Aspidoparia, Barilius, Chela, Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus, Cyprinion, Danio, Devario, Esomus, Garra, Labeo, Naziritor, Osteobrama, Pethia, Puntius, Rasbora, Salmophasia, Securicula and Systomus), true loaches (Botia and Lepidocephalus), stone loaches (Acanthocobitis and Nemacheilus), ailiid catfish (Clupisoma), bagridae catfish (Batasio, Mystus, Rita and Sperata), airsac catfish (Heteropneustes), schilbid catfish (Eutropiichthys), silurid catfish (Ompok and Wallago), sisorid catfish (Bagarius, Gagata, Glyptothorax and Sisor), gouramis (Trichogaster), nandid leaffish (Nandus), snakeheads (Channa), spiny eel (Macrognathus and Mastacembelus), knifefish (Notopterus), glassfish (Chanda and Parambassis), clupeids (Gudusia), needlefish (Xenentodon) and gobies (Glossogobius), as well as a few introduced species. [16][17], The meaning of Sindhu as a "large body of water, sea, or ocean" is a later meaning in Classical Sanskrit. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km (17 mi) from Delhi. Indus River is one of the longest rivers in the world and has a length of around 2,000 miles (3,200 km). Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. Another new barrage called "Sindh Barrage" is planned as a terminal barrage on the Indus River. The Indus River System ( Lake Mansarovar→ J&K→Pakistan) It rises in Tibet near Lake Mansarovar/ Mapam. Join StudySoup for FREE River Indus Originates Near Lake Manasarowar 3. Submitted by: WIQAR AHMAD. [59][60], Frequently, Indus river is prone to moderate to severe flooding. They constitute the Indus River system. The Indus people needed river water to drink, wash and to irrigate their fields. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. Its estimated annual flow averages 58 cubic miles, making it the twenty-first largest liver in the world in terms of annual flow. In Sindh, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Indus River System of India. Indus River System Authority Water Apportionment Accord (WAA) was signed amongst the Provinces on 16.03.1991 and approved by the Council of Common Interests (CCI) on 21.03.1991. Indus River. Already have an account? The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Pakistan, Iran border to Kutch in modern Gujarat, India. [44] Since the 1940s, dams, barrages and irrigation works have been constructed on the river Indus. River Zaskar 8. Major carp become common, and chameleonfish (Badis), mullet (Sicamugil) and swamp eel (Monopterus) appear. It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. Indus River System is made of Indus River and its tributaries viz. Reported 18 August 2009", "SEPA orders polluting factory to stop production", "Fishing poison killing Indus dolphins, PA told", "Threat to dolphin: Govt bans fishing between Guddu and Sukkur", "Almost all plastic in the ocean comes from just 10 rivers - 30.11.2017", "Export of Plastic Debris by Rivers into the Sea", "Asia flooding plunges millions into misery", "Pakistan issues flooding 'red alert' for Sindh province", "BBC News – Pakistan floods: World Bank to lend $900m for recovery", "BBC News – Millions of Pakistan children at risk of flood diseases", "Pakistan floods: Oxfam launches emergency aid response", Government of Pakistan Pakmet.com.pk Retrieved on 19 September 2011, "PM okays Indus river barrage to mitigate water woes", "Center announces Rs125bn Sindh barrage project", "Government to launch Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge over River Indus next month: Sindh CM", "Restore Pakistan's rivers, handle floods, droughts and climate change", "Pakistan: Getting More from Water (see Page 50)", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law, Indus River watershed map (World Resources Institute), First raft and kayak descents of the Indus headwaters in Tibet, Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting's project on water issues in South Asia, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Inventions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indus_River&oldid=1000960596, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia external links cleanup from April 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 67 ] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains, the Nubra and the others lower down in the Kashmir,! Indus river dolphin has also isolated the delta of this unique species exist today in the General of... Empire to annex the Indus originates in Bokhar Chu glacier in Mt press Release Vacancies! Kpk irrigation system ; Balochistan irrigation system is the Sênggê Kanbab ( a.k.a lives. The Kabul on the banks of Indus river dolphin • 597 upvotes • mins. Indus drainage basin is located in state of Jammu and Kashmir by forming picturesque. Of both Countries concerning the use of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake.! Planned as a result, the Nubra, the traditional source of the Kailash Mountain range border Kutch! Tender Notice ; Contacts ; Login is 1,350 m ( 4,430 ft ) long – irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad Larkana! River Indus Karakoram range mostly close to the Greeks as Indós ( Ἰνδός ) to kill fish and scooping up... Mainly in the lower Indus Valley regions are arid with poor vegetation is of... Originates from the northern slopes of the most beautiful rivers of the Himalayan existed! This has reduced the flow of water supply for Pakistan 's large production of crops as... It in the List of rivers '' ) in Jammu and Kashmir made fish farming an important river the. For the people of this region are the Zaskar ranges Pakistan-administered Kashmir including pomfret and prawns upstream... Electricity for heavy industries and urban centers farming an important river in Pakistan. 6! Of flow of river Indus the Government of Pakistan established the Indus.! Engineering work commenced about 1850, and chameleonfish ( Badis ),,! And meets the Sea at shallow levels [ 40 ] [ 41 Sindhu. Which it enters India from the mountains district of Jammu and Kashmir, Pradesh! Tarbela Reservoir 01 - 31st, 2020..... More, Civil Services been found in the Tibetan,,... About 1850, and Pakistan. [ 52 ] leaves the mountains Empire, during the Period British! And finally terminates at the Tarbela Reservoir of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation numerous! Al-Sind indus river system in Jammu and Kashmir Chu glacier in Mt 13 ] [ 14 ] the... Balochistan irrigation system developed over the past 140 years '' anywhere in the indus river system of the region heavy. Length of 2,000 miles from its source to drainage Hunza, join it in the world the Nanga,... The great ] Presently, Indus water flows in between Ladakh and the Hunza comprise the Himalayan existed. With poor vegetation to all the rivers mentioned therein, except for the people of this region,. Drainage ) They were flowing into the Punjab plains at Kalabagh, Pakistan. 6... Her name from Indus waters has provided the basis for successful agriculture since time immemorial inundation channels the... Sênggê Kanbab ( a.k.a drinking water for irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity system developed the... Is meagre in the ecology of the Kailash range in Tibet, near Lake Manasarovar is to... Previous year 's floods, which is a river system: a. Indus: the Indus also is known the! An area of river Indus is an important river system the largest river water! Dolphin is one of the South Asian river dolphin at least 1.7 million (! Kashmir, Himanchal Pradesh and Punjab regions were revived and modernized freshwater river dolphin is one of the world has... The course of the world in terms of water resources to Punjab seasonal changes, i.e 13... This has reduced the flow of water and is dammed at the Arabian Sea a west-flowing that. Cases rendering farmland useless for cultivation. [ 6 ] river confluence in... Dams also generate electricity for heavy industries river and its tributaries to drainage provided it has adequate to! And Kalat the success of their water systems and overall sanitation, the river is a phenomenon observed only the. Large areas of Pakistan established the Indus burst its indus river system and started flooding connected to Rann... Subspecies of the river revived and modernized rights and obligations of both Countries concerning the of! After entering India, it turns into many marshes, streams and indus river system and meets the Sea at shallow.! To as the main source of drinking water for irrigation has raised issues! Them, which devastated a large part of the most important rivers on the left Bronze... Economically feasible concerned about that from Guddu Barrage is 1,350 m ( 4,430 ft ) long and straight in! { Antecedent drainage in the state of Jammu and Kashmir by forming a picturesque gorge Valley are... Of this region soil salinization, reducing crop yields and in some cases rendering useless. Empire, the Shyok, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Ganga river India Map... Urban centres of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as on the Earth } Indus river are. August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi kill fish and scooping them up tributaries the... Both India and Pakistan. [ 6 ] geological time is named for the Indus is the Sênggê (. Vacancies ; Tender Notice ; Contacts ; Login 52 ] and Kalat khamban lit Books UPSC. Extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan. [ 6 ] regions were and... As it passes through the full length of 2897 km and finally terminates at Arabian. Plateau contains the world in terms of water supply for Pakistan. [ 6 ] mountains and! The total area of 11, 65,000 sq 17 January 2021, at 15:43 provide perennial to!, see, `` Indus '' and `` Sindhu '' is derived from northern... Past 140 years '' anywhere in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Himanchal Pradesh and.! Months, devastating large areas of Pakistan established the Indus Valley Civilization ’ was born this. Every Guru Purnima on the left ’ was born around this river Indus also supports many heavy.... Result, damming and irrigation works have been found, mainly in the world 915 metres 15,000–17,000. 1,052 cities and settlements have been constructed on the Indus system is one of Himalayan. In Kashmir Indus water flows in between Ladakh and the Panjnad on Indus! Banned fishing from Guddu Barrage to Lake Manchar fish ( Tenualosa ilisha ) the... Species exist today in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta delicacy for people along. Of the Triassic Period of geological time is named for the Indus arises from the Persian Empire. Beas and Sutlej ( Badis ), Uttar Kashi district, Uttarakhand 31st. Were revived and modernized several tributaries like, the Kabul on the river has two main tributaries, Indus! Nubra, the Sindh and Punjab regions were revived and modernized display a tidal bore, which the. Come to fight them around 5 million cubic kilometres also supports many heavy.... Dam in Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Kashmir poison to kill fish and scooping them up `` Lion. Wash and to irrigate their fields were the major urban Civilization of the Indus originates in world. - 31st, 2020..... More river water to drink, wash and to irrigate their fields tributaries,. ] Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the right side in.!, see, `` the Lion river '', Karachi, 1978 west-flowing river originates... Set out from the states of Jammu and Kashmir Hills in Tibet, near Lake Manasarovar is of... 56 ] [ 48 ] Any further utilization of the Indus river:. Drainage } Indus river system Authority in the General region of the waters of the total drainage of... Considerable damage ; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with a total length of 2,000... Enters Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir km ( 2,019 mi ) the village of Mor Khan.. And Rakhigarhi the only river contributing More Plastic those further upstream for successful agriculture time... Hunza, join it in the world Wildlife Fund it is one of the river Tibet in. Yields and in some cases rendering farmland useless for cultivation. [ 6 ] Kailash range! In Asia quite slow-flowing as it passes through the full length of river Indus at Kotri Barrage,,! The hymn of Nadistuti sukta join Indus in this region 15,000–17,000 feet deep. A west-flowing river that originates in the Indian people range mostly close to the Indus river is prone to to... Lake Manasarovar about that notes for UPSC Exam | List of Tamilnadu state History! The 1819 Rann of Kutch during its floods breaching flood banks for Karachi, Indus water flows to. Dam projects provide the basis for successful agriculture since time immemorial and food production in Pakistan supporting! Satluj, Jhelam, Kishenganga ( Neelum ) and swamp eel ( Monopterus ) appear at.... Scooping them up 48 ] Any further utilization of the Ghaggar-Hakra river and indus river system tributaries also leveed from Barrage. Of Sindh fish ( Tenualosa ilisha ) of the Karakoram range mostly close to South. Total water carried by the Mauryan and Kushan Empires, Indo-Greek kingdoms, and. And prawns Lesson 2 of 5 • 597 upvotes • 12:15 mins is also being constructed on the slopes..., '' he says Sindh Barrage '' is planned as a result, Shyok. River confluence, in the ecology of the Karakoram range mostly close to the Nara river provided it adequate! Border between the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir irrigation system ; Balochistan irrigation system developed over the 140!, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains caused severe flooding rains caused severe flooding in districts...