The following books and special journal issues address the topic of health disparities: The following reports should be of interest to anyone interested in health disparities: Report of the Secretary’s Task Force on Black & Minority Health (The Heckler Report). Smoking rates were highest among younger poor White men in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley, older Western Native American and high-risk urban Black men, and Western Native American women. Although these particular meta-analyses suggest that disadvantaged groups may suffer from worse mental health, it should be noted that on the whole Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks have a lower risk for mental illness than non-Hispanic Whites (Breslau et al., 2006; Mezuk et al., 2013), although their access to mental health care may be worse (McGuire & Miranda, 2008). Broadly speaking, it is important to develop and test theoretical models that will better inform our understanding of the etiology of health disparities so that we can design and implement more effective interventions to reduce them. Researchers also must do a better job in recruiting and retaining racial and ethnic minorities in health and intervention research (Nagler, Ramanadhan, Minsky, & Viswanath, 2013; Rogers & Lange, 2013). In terms of sex differences, women tend to fare better than men. Close to 1 billion people in the world live in slum conditions, representing about one quarter of the world's urban population. Original articles, solicited ‘evolutionary’ reviews presenting the state-of-the-art thinking on problems centered on health disparities, and unsolicited review articles of timely interest will be considered for publication.” (http://www.springer.com/medicine/journal/40615; Note: This journal is identified as the “First journal dedicated to examining and eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.”). It is of interest to note that the term “health disparities” is most commonly used in the United States, whereas other countries tend to use the terms “health inequities” or “health inequalities” (Carter-Pokras & Baquet, 2002). Health disparities are a global issue, and many different groups of people are affected by them. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report—United States, 2011. Social determinants vary widely, ranging from one’s social network and the associated norms and attitudes to socioeconomic conditions, including income and transportation. This report is the result of an independent review commissioned by England’s Secretary of State for Health to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce health inequalities in the country. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2011) presents a concise definition: “Health disparities are differences in health outcomes between groups that reflect social inequalities” (p. 1). In the extensive literature on socioeconomic health disparities, less attention has been paid to examining the variability in health outcomes within social or economic groups. Health disparities are the metric we use to measure progress toward achieving health equity. In Glasgow, male life expectancy ranges from 66.2 years in Ruchill and Possilpark to 81.7 years in Cathcart and Simshill – a difference of 15.5 years. Periodic reports from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide information on health disparities in the United States: You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Populations of interest tend to be defined primarily by socioeconomic status (income/education), race, ethnicity, and sex or gender; however, differences in sexual orientation, immigrant status, geography, and physical and mental disability are also of concern. Factors contributing to health disparities are many and multifaceted. There are several important points to keep in mind when considering differences in morbidity and mortality. They are 14 times more likely to die before the age of five in sub-Saharan Africa than the rest of the world. Third, there are several different strategies for communicating about health disparities (comparing different social groups, emphasizing specific groups, framing the causes of disparities, using narratives) and each has, not surprisingly, different outcomes. Foster transdisciplinary collaborations that integrate evidence from basic biomedical science with social, behavioral, and population science methodologies in intervention design and outcomes assessment. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication, College of Communication and Information, University of Kentucky, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, Office of Minority Health & Health Equity, Rockefeller Foundation and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Gender (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Studies), Incidence and Prevalence of Morbidity and Mortality, Health Literacy and Health Information Seeking, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.222, http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=ceth20, http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jhdrp/, http://www.springer.com/medicine/journal/40615, http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/projects/fair-society-healthy-lives-the-marmot-review, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/109759/EHFA5-E.pdf, http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/population-health/adler.html, Health disparities and health equity: Concepts and measurement, Specifying race-ethnic differences in risk for psychiatric disorders in a US national sample, A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of behavioural smoking cessation interventions in selected disadvantaged groups, Racial and ethnic approaches to community health: Reducing health disparities by addressing social determinants of health, http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/reach/pdf/final_reach_fact-sheet-092012_tag508.pdf, Cancer coverage in general-audience and Black newspapers, The promise of prevention: The effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States, Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: Critical review of the literature and meta-analysis, Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection among people who inject drugs: An international systematic review and meta-analysis, Conceptual approaches to the study of health disparities, Race and ethnicity in public health research: Models to explain health disparities, Do interventions designed to support shared decision-making reduce health inequalities? Income was the biggest predictor of differences in health outcomes, according to Zimmerman. On the whole, results showed that Whites had the lowest blood pressure and Southern rural Blacks had the highest blood pressure. Efforts to explore underlying causes of health disparities and to describe interventions that have been undertaken to address racial and ethnic health disparities are featured. The exorbitant costs of NCDs are forcing millions of people into poverty annually, stifling development. Most discussions of the meaning of population health start with a review of the definition offered up by David Kindig, MD, PhD, and Greg Stoddart, PhD, in 2003.READ MORE: Using Risk Scores, Stratification for Population Health ManagementPopulation health is “the When da… differences in health outcomes by groups, for instance, between males and females, people of different ethnicities, and people of lower and higher socioeconomic status. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on the United States, Fleischer, Diez Roux, and Hubbard (2012) considered body mass index and smoking behavior across 70 countries using data from the 2002–2003 World Health Surveys, looking for instances of disparities by urbanicity and education. Health inequities are differences in health status or in the distribution of health resources between different population groups, arising from the social conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. In a meta-analysis of 29 studies looking at HPV vaccine uptake among young adolescent women, results showed that young Black women were less likely than young White women to be vaccinated and that young women in the United States who did not have health insurance were less likely to be vaccinated than young women with health insurance (Fisher, Trotter, Audrey, MacDonald-Wallis, & Hickman, 2013). A study investigating socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries found that mortality rates were higher and self-assessments of health were lower for groups with lower socioeconomic status (Mackenbach et al., 2008). People with low health literacy may not understand information they receive from their health care providers or from media sources, so the question of whether or not health literacy is related to health disparities is of interest. In terms of policy, requiring seatbelt use, restricting smoking areas, and increasing tax on alcoholic beverages all can have a positive impact on health. The objective of the study is to examine the presence, direction, and magnitude of possible differences between proxy-reported and patient-reported outcomes in health and … The European Parliament has estimated that losses linked to health inequities cost around 1.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) within the European Union – a figure almost as high as the EU's defense spending (1.6% of GDP). have different levels of health, yet not all of these differences are always categorized or defined as health disparities. Research on race and health in the United States shows many health disparities among the different racial/ethnic groups. the process of individual change and adaptation as a result of continuous contact with a new, distinct culture. But scientific research and sound policy analysis demand information about causal relationships. More than 10 years passed before the issue was raised again, this time in an editorial appearing in the Journal of the American Medical Association lamenting the “ever-present” impact of racism as a barrier to health (Cornely, 1976). In a meta-analysis of 23 studies involving interventions to encourage ethnic minority women to obtain mammograms, Han et al. A report from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (2001, p. 4) recommends five steps to follow when assessing health disparities, quoted here: Define which aspect(s) of health to measure, Identify the relevant population groupings across which to compare health status, Choose a reference group or “norm” against which to compare the health of different groups, Decide whether to measure inequality using absolute or relative differences in health status between population groups, Select among alternative “social weights” for preferences that are built into health measures. Examples of all of these determinants are extensive. Buckner-Brown et al. Moving toward greater equity is achieved by selectively improving the health of those who are economically/socially disadvantaged, not by a worsening of the health of those in advantaged groups. First, though, it is important to ask whether such efforts have any chance at improving health disparities. Promising studies that are ongoing or studies that have longer term data are welcome, as are studies that serve as lessons for best practices in eliminating health disparities. A meta-analysis of rheumatic heart disease that involved 37 populations found a relationship between level of social inequality and prevalence of the disease; prevalence increased with age, but there were no differences by sex (Rothenbühler et al., 2014). A reduction in health disparities (in absolute and relative terms) is evidence that we are moving toward greater health equity. Two studies that focused on non-small cell lung cancer provide clear examples. First, American audiences have very little awareness of health disparities, do not think the issue is very important, and tend to put responsibility for health at the individual level rather than the social level (as in social determinants of health). The extent to which infectious disease spreads at different rates among different groups is of interest, as is whether there are differences in vaccination rates by population groups. They found that respondents who did not use the Internet had less awareness of the HPV vaccine and were less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer. The authors conclude that “the evidence on the role of health literacy on disparities in still mixed and, for most outcomes, very limited” (p. 16). Results showed a positive impact of such interventions compared to usual care, with women who received culturally tailored education showing improvement in their glycemic control. (2010) reviewed several programs across local, national, and global levels that have been enacted to reduce health disparities and found considerable evidence of positive impact. Individual behavioral risk factors are numerous, involving such things as alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and risky sexual behavior resulting in sexually transmitted infections and unplanned/early pregnancy. Select agencies within the National Institutes of Health also support what are called Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHDs). Health inequities are systematic differences in the health status of different population groups. Second, the way the issue of health disparities is depicted in the media may have impact on public support for initiatives to reduce health disparities. Efforts to reduce health disparities are extensive and involve government and foundation efforts and research-driven interventions. The issue of health disparities, as such, seems to have been first brought to the attention of the contemporary academic community in 1965 in a New England Journal of Medicine article, in which the authors described a process for identifying and defining “high-risk groups” in need of health services, in this case women and children in need of maternal and child health services in Buffalo, New York (Anderson, Jenss, Mosher, Randall, & Marra, 1965). Different outcomes in mental and physical health exist between all census-recognized racial groups, but these differences stem from different historical and current factors, including genetics, socioeconomic factors, and racism. Providing a brief highlight of the literature, Harrington (2013) showed the answer is yes: Koh et al. Implications for mental health practitioners and ongoing research are discussed. For example, racial and ethnic minorities tend to be less healthy than their majority counterparts. In the United States, there are federal agencies tasked with the goal of reducing health disparities. Outcomes reported by proxy may be systematically different from those obtained from patients directly. A meta-analysis of 20 studies of pediatric food allergy prevalence in the United States found that although prevalence of food allergy has increased overall, increases were greater among non-Hispanic Black children (Keet et al., 2014). Using the 2007 HINTS data, Kontos, Emmons, Puleo, and Viswanath (2012) explored the relationship between Internet use and knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Socioeconomic status, as defined by income and education, may be the most important factor underlying health disparities. These are covered in the report, but we’ve placed a special focus on inequalities between ethnic groups and see major differences in health behaviours and outcomes between them. Comparing Hispanics only, Zhao found that foreign-born respondents were less likely to seek information for themselves and less likely to trust information from their doctor or the Internet; most of the differences found for the groups on the whole also held for the Hispanic subgroups. A systematic review of the literature by Mantwill, Monestel-Umaña, and Schultz (2015) asked precisely this question. Inequalities exist across a range of dimensions, such as socio-economic deprivation and personal characteristics like age and sex. (2010) studied the impact of four preventable risk factors (smoking, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and body fat) on life expectancy across eight subgroups in the United States known as the “eight Americas” (Asians, below-median-income Whites living in the Northland, middle America, poor Whites living in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley, Native Americans living on reservations in the West, Black middle-America, poor Blacks living in the rural South, and Blacks living in high-risk urban environments). Every year the National Cancer Institute collects and publishes data based on patient demographics. In terms of smoking, lower levels of education were associated with higher levels of smoking among men regardless of level of country urbanicity and among women in least urban countries; higher levels of education were associated with higher levels of smoking among women in the most urban countries. Health21: An Introduction to the Health for All Policy Framework for the WHO European Region. These deaths affect mainly young adults in their most productive years. (2009) determined that such interventions were effective. Of course, factors beyond socioeconomic status also come into play. The likelihood of meeting the Sustainable Development Goal 3 on good health and well-being is closely linked to the targets of goal 11 on sustainable cities and communities. For example, the United Kingdom tends to use occupation whereas the United States tends to use race/ethnicity. Since the 1980s, our nation has made substantial progress in improving residents’ health and reducing health disparities, but ongoing racial/ethnic, economic, and other social disparities in health are both unacceptable and correctable. As described in previous chapters, there are differences in health outcomes for men and women, for different age groups and for different countries. In particular, foreign-born respondents were less likely to have other people seek cancer information for them, had lower self-efficacy for seeking information, were more likely to think seeking information took a lot of effort and to feel frustrated, thought information was harder to understand, were less likely to trust information from newspaper and magazines, and were more likely to hold negative cancer-related beliefs such as “everything causes cancer” and people cannot lower their cancer risk. The Journal invites submission of original manuscripts from researchers, public health, behavioral health, clinical and social science experts and practitioner that seek to continue the discussion of health disparities in order to eradicate them.” (http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jhdrp/), Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health: “The Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health is an international forum for the publication of peer-reviewed original research pertaining to immigrant health. Among women, most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. RWJF focus areas are child and family well-being, health coverage, health leadership and workforce, health system improvement, healthy weight, and health communities. Although there is the possibility that attempts to reduce disparities may actually exacerbate them if interventions are not disseminated and implemented equitably (Koh et al., 2010; Viswanath & Kreuter, 2007), as Perloff (2006, p. 757) observed, bridging the literatures in health communication and health disparities promises to offer “new ideas, syntheses, and applications that may improve the quality of health care.”. These inequities arise from inequalities within and between societies. Contracting the disease makes it even harder for these adults to improve their personal economic condition and that of their families. 8–9). The -suest- command in Stata was used to assess significant differences in the associations between inadequate access to care and health outcomes across age groups in men and women and by sex in the age groups. This arises from loses in productivity and tax payments, and from higher welfare payments and health care costs. ... or ‘Asian’ may mask considerable within-group differences and emphasise between-group differences. The studies briefly reviewed next provide examples of the extent to which different groups have different experiences with the variety of determinants of health. This should include differences and health outcomes between groups. The National Institutes of Health includes the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD), which was elevated from Institute to Center status in 2010. Health inequities are differences in health status or in the distribution of health resources between different population groups, arising from the social conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. In shifting to aspects of mental health, a meta-analysis of 12 studies that considered migration, social mobility, and mental health found that migrants who experienced “downward social mobility” were more likely to experience mental disorders than those who either had no change in their socioeconomic status or experienced an increase in socioeconomic status (Das-Munshi, Leavey, Stansfeld, & Prince, 2012). These inequities have significant social and economic costs both to individuals and societies. Related, there are opportunities to advance our knowledge of the effects of tailored interventions and technology-based interventions to reduce health disparities. Explain what challenges disparate populations face in your state. Examples include reductions in cardiovascular disease and cancer in disadvantaged groups in England and reductions in maternal and child deaths in Ecuador. They die of pneumonia, malaria, diarrhoea and other diseases. Ethnic inequalities in health have been well documented in the UK. The important point is that socially advantaged and disadvantaged groups have different levels of access and exposure to and experience with these determinants of health, and that is what leads to health disparities. Printed from Oxford Research Encyclopedias, Communication. An analysis of survival outcomes of patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer found that Asian patients fared consistently better than Caucasian patients in terms of overall survival rates, as well as across a number of indices of response to chemotherapy (Soo et al., 2011). Health literacy is defined as “the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions” (USDHHS, 2012). This section reviews a sample of meta-analytic studies that explore different aspects of disparities in morbidity and mortality. Health disparities adversely affect groups of people who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, or physical disability; sexual orientation or gender identity; geographic location; or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion. In doing so, communication researchers must keep communication theory in mind and focus on those etiological factors that would respond to a communication intervention. Expand efforts to dismantle historical and contemporary drivers of stigmatization and discrimination of persons who are members of disparate populations. Socio-economic deprivation and traumatic experiences pre-migration contribute to a high risk for mental health problems among immigrant background youth. Media influences involve the effects of access or exposure to different kinds of health information on the health behavior and health outcomes of different groups, as well as the effects of health disparity media coverage on public support for initiatives to reduce health disparities. Differences in rates of avoidable mortality between population groups reflect differences in people getting the help that they need to address life-threatening health risks and illnesses. ‘Health inequalities’ refers to differences in health outcomes between groups, for example a higher rate of lung cancer incidence in more deprived areas compared with less deprived areas. Results of their meta-analysis found that in the least urban countries, higher levels of education were associated with higher levels of body mass index but in the most urban countries, higher levels of education were associated with lower levels of body mass index. We applied the sampling weights to all models to account for the CLHLS study design. A meta-analysis of 21 studies that looked at mental health among cancer patients found that U.S. Hispanics experienced worse distress, depression, social health-related quality of life, and overall health-related quality of life than non-Hispanic Whites (Luckett et al., 2011). Results showed that Black newspapers were more likely to feature cancer stories and that those cancer stories were more likely to include disparity information, local information, and personal mobilization information. Parsing the respondents into “general health information seekers” and “cancer information seekers” revealed interesting subtleties. The causal effects of policies and programs related to vaccines, vehicle safety, toxic substances, pollution, legal and illegal drugs, and health behaviors are difficult to measure. He found differences between the groups on the whole and between U.S. Hispanics and foreign-born Hispanics. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. The authors emphasized the importance of partnerships with governments, businesses, and organizations to help disseminate research-based interventions. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The remaining DD could be plausibly attributed to the reform. 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